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Volume-2 Issue-4: Published on February 25, 2014
Volume-2 Issue-4: Published on February 25, 2014

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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-4, February 2014, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Nidhi, Shilpa Mehta

Paper Title:

Review of Existing Techniques of Lung Nodule Cancer Detection and Existing Algorithms that can be Used for Efficient Detection In Future

Abstract: The paper studies the various methods of lung nodule cancer detection their advantage and disadvantage. The paper further aims at suggesting existing methods which can be used in detection of lung nodules of very small size accurately. The suggested methods have higher level of accuracy than existing methods thus if incorporated in detection for nodule can generate higher level of accuracy.

CAD, HRCT, rotation invariance, CT, FCM, LBP and LBPV.


2. 110617

3.        Kakar Manish, Dag Rune Olsen , “Automatic segmentation and recognition of lungs and lesion from CT scans of thorax”  Original Research Article Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 72-82

4.        Brown S. Mathew, Laurence S. Wilson, Bruce D. Doust, Gill D. Robert , Changming Sun “Knowledge-based method for segmentation and analysis of lung boundaries in chest X-ray images “ Original Research Article Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Volume 22, Issue 6, 12 November 1998, Pages 463-477

5.        Jun-Wei LIU, Huan-Qing FENG, Ying-Yue ZHOU, Chuan-Fu LI, “A Novel Automatic Extraction Method of Lung Texture Tree from HRCT Images “ Original Research Article Acta Automatica Sinica, Volume 35, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 345-349

6.        Youngjoo Lee, Joon Beom Seo, June Goo Lee, Song Soo Kim, Namkug Kim, Suk Ho Kang, “Performance testing of several classifiers for differentiating obstructive lung diseases based on texture analysis at high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT)” Original Research Article Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Volume 93, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 206-215

7.        Jianhua Yao, Andrew Dwyer, Ronald M. Summers, Daniel J. Mollura, “Computer-aided Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infections Using Texture Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classification”, Original Research Article Academic Radiology, Volume 18, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 306-314\
8.        Jingbin Wang, Margrit Betke, Jane P. Ko, “Pulmonary fissure segmentation on CT”  Original Research Article Medical Image Analysis, Volume 10, Issue 4, August 2006, Pages 530-547
9.        “Computationally efficient CAD system for pulmonary nodule detection in CT imagery” 

10.     M. F. McNitt-Gray, N. Wyckoff, J. W. Sayre, J. G. Goldin, D. R. Aberle , “The effects of co-occurrence  matrix based texture parameters on the classification of solitary pulmonary nodules imaged on computed tomography”,  Original Research Article Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Volume 23, Issue 6, December 1999, Pages 339-348 

11.     P.R. Hill, D.R. Bull, C.N. Canagarajah, “Rotationally invariant texture features using  the dual-tree complex wavelet transform”, Proc. Int'l Conf. Image Process., vol. 3,IEEE, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2000, pp. 901–904. 

12.     Edward H.S. Lo, Mark R. Pickering, Michael R. Frater, John F. Arnold,” Image segmentation from scale and rotation invariant texture features from the double dyadic dual-tree complex wavelet transform”, © 2010 Elsevier, accepted 5 august, 2010

13.     Timo Ojala, Matti PietikaÈ inen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Topi MaÈenpaÈa suggested in 2002, “Multiresolution Gray-Scale and Rotation Invariant Texture Classification with Local Binary Patterns” July,2002 

14.     Zhenhua Guo,LeiZhang,DavidZhang,” Rotation invariant texture classification using LBP variance (LBPV) with global matching”, Biometrics Research Centre, Department of Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China, Pattern Recognition 43 (2010) 706–719 

15.     Timo Ojala, Matti Pietikainen, "Unsupervised texture segmentation using feature distributions", Machine Vision and Media Processing Group, Infotech Oulu, University of Oulu, FIN-90570 Oulu, Finland, Received December,1997; in revised form February,1998.




Trupti P. Pawale, Manjunatha

Paper Title:

Survey on Survey on Computational Effort of Public Key Cryptography for WSNs

Abstract: In this paper we have worked over the security issues for public key cryptanalysis for wireless network security .We have made an attempt to compare ECC and RSA for WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS. We found ECC to have a significant advantage over RSA as it reduces computation time and also the amount of data transmitted and stored. RSA key generation is much more time consuming as it requires the generation of large prime numbers. We also have made an effort to study the behavior of WSNs nodes.

 Wireless sensor networks, security, Public Key cryptography, energy analysis.


1.        Ian F. Akyildiz, Weilian Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, ArdalCayirci. “A Survey on Sensor Networks”, IEEE Communications Magazine, August2002, pp 102 – 114. 
2.        Jay Warior. “Smart Sensor Networks of the Future”. DA Systems. html A. Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Culler, J. D..Tygar. “SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the 7thAnnual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computingand Networking (MobiCom), Rome, Italy, pp. 189–199, July 2001.. 

3.        S. Zhu, S. Setia, S. Jajodia. “LEAP: Efficient Security Mechanismsfor Large-Scale Distributed Sensor Networks”, In the Proceedings ofthe 10th ACM conference on Computer and communications security,2003. 

4.        J. P. Walters, Zh. Liang, W. Shi, V. Chaudhary, “Security inDistributed, Grid, and Pervasive Computing”, Chapter 17, CRC Press,2006. 

5.        R. B. Ghazali, “Security in WSN in Enhance AODV Routing”,Masters thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, UniversityTechnology Malaysia, 2006. 

6.        N. Koblitz, “Elliptic curve cryptosystems”, Mathematics ofComputation, Vol. 48, 1987. 

7.        V.S. Miller, “Use of Elliptic Curves in Cryptography”, Advances inCryptology CRYPTO 85, 1986. 

8.        A. S. Wander, N. Gura, H. Eberle, V. Gupta, Sh. Ch. Shantz,“Energy analysis of public-key cryptography for wireless sensornetworks”, In PERCOM ’05: Proceedings of the Third IEEEInternational Conference on Pervasive Computing andCommunications, pp. 324–328, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. IEEEComputer Society. 

9.        Wireless Sensor Networks Security F. Amin, A. H. Jahangir, and H. Rasifard 

10.     A.S.Wander,N.Gura,h.Eberle,V.Gupta,Sh.Ch. Shantz,”Energy analysis of public-key cryptography for wireless sensor networks”,In PERCOM ’05:Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and communications,pp.324-328,Washington,DC,USA,2005.IEEE Computer Society. 

11.     K.Piotrowski, P . Langendoerfer, S.Peter,”How Public Key Cryptography Influences Wireless Sensor Node Lifetime”,Proceedings of the fourth ACM workshop on Security of ad hoc and sensor networks,USA,pp.169-176,2006




Manoj Bhaskar, Salim Akhtar, Geeta Batham

Paper Title:

Development of The Bricks from Red Mud By Industrial Waste (Red Mud)

Abstract: Red mud emerges as the major waste material during production of alumina from bauxite by the Bayer’s process. It comprises of oxides of iron, titanium, aluminum and silica along with some other minor constituents. In the present investigation experimental study was conducted for development of brick using red mud. Red mud brick of different trial mix were produced in the lab and test were conducted to find the properties of red mud brick properties found from tests were compared with the properties of ordinary bricks. It is found from the study that a red mud brick shows better performance than ordinary brick. As red mud bricks are eco-friendly & economical they protect the environmental also. Compressive strength of red mud bricks are more as compound to ordinary bricks. Water absorption is also more but within limit, change is size and weight losses of red mud brick are negligible in case of red mud bricks.

 Red mud material, Fly Ash, Coal Dust, Clay Guard Etc.


1.        Paramguru, R.K., Rath, P.C., Misra, V.N. Trends in red mud utilization - A review, Miner. Process Extr. Metal. Rev. 26(1), (2005), 1-29
2.        Agrawal, K.K. Sahu, B.D. Pandey, Solid waste management in non-ferrous industries in India,Resources Conservation Recycling  42  (2004),99–120

3.        Jongyeong Hyuna, Shigehisa Endoha, Kaoru Masudaa, Heeyoung Shinb, Hitoshi Ohyaa, Reduction of chlorine in bauxite residue by fine particle separation, Int. J. Miner. Process., 76, 1-2, (2005), 13-20

4.        Claudia Brunori, Carlo Cremisini, Paolo Massanisso, Valentina Pinto, Leonardo Torricelli, Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: studies on environmental compatibility, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 117(1), (2005), 55-63

5.         H. Genc¸-Fuhrman, J.C. Tjell, D. McConchie, Increasing the arsenate adsorption capacity of neutralized red mud (Bauxsol™), J. Colloid Interface Sci. 271 (2004) 313–320

6.        H. Genc¸-Fuhrman, J.C. Tjell, D. McConchie, Adsorption of arsenic from water using activated neutralized red mud, Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 (2004) 2428–2434

7.        H. Genc¸-Fuhrman, J.C. Tjell, D. McConchie, O. Schuiling, Adsorption of arsenate from water using neutralized red mud, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 264 (2003) 327–334

8.        Kadovic, Milena V., Klasnja, Mile T., Blagoievic, Nada Z., Vasiljevic, Rajko, Jacimovic, Zeljko K. Treatment of the liquid phase from the red mud disposal site of the aluminium plant in Podgorica. Hemijska Industrija (2004), 58(4), 186-190. (in Serbian)

9.        Seymer OB, Kirkpatrick DB (1999). Red mud product development. Light metals: 25-30

10.     Mistry, M., Roehrlich, M., Ruhrberg, M., Martens, P. N. A resource - oriented view on the disposal of waste generated during primary aluminum production. Schriften des Forschungszentrums Juelich, Reihe Materie und Material (2003), 17(Resource-Orientated Analysis of Metallic Raw Materials), 202-209.




Ezer Osei Yeboah-Boateng, Kofi Asare Essandoh

Paper Title:

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Small and Medium Enterprises in Developing Economies

Abstract: The key motivation of this paper is to assess the factors which influence small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a developing economy to adopt cloud computing. Recently, service providers offering a wide range of cloud-based ICT solutions to businesses have emerged into prominence. However, the acceptance and interest in these services amongst SMEs are slow and discouraging. As such, there is the urgent need to identify the enabling and constraining forces and other key influential factors necessitating this problem. The study highlights cost reduction on IT infrastructure and maintenance, improved communication, scalability and business continuity as the main drivers of cloud adoption, whereas lack of knowledge, poor internet connectivity, security of cloud services, lack of trust and interoperability with existing systems were identified as barriers to adoption. Top management support, trialability, competence of cloud vendors, resistance to new technology, compatibility and existence of IT infrastructure are realized as key factors influencing cloud computing adoption. These findings will go a long way in helping service providers and technology policymakers to develop solutions and strategies that specifically meet the needs of SMEs and other clients in order to encourage and speed up the rate of adoption.

 Cloud Computing, Developing Economies, SMEs, Technology Adoption, TOE framework. 


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3.        R. Rio-Belver, E. Cilleruelo, G. Garechana, J. Gavilanes and J. Zabalza, "New Management Models based in Cloud-Computing," in Business and Management 2012, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2012. 

4.        H. Susanto, M. N. Almunawar and C. C. Kang, "A Review of Cloud Computing Evolution Individual and Business Perspective," Social Science Research Network & University of Brunei, 2012.

5.        R. Buyya, Y. Chee Shin and S. Venugopal, "Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities," 2008. 

6.        J. L. Kourik, "For Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SME) Deliberating Cloud Computing: A Proposed Approach," Paris, France, 2011. 

7.        E. Gleeson, "Computing Industry set for a Shocking Change," 2009. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 17 June 2013].

8.        E. O. Yeboah-Boateng and S. Cudjoe-Seshie, "Cloud Computing: The Emergence of Application Service Providers (ASPs) in Developing Economies," International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 703-712, 2013. 

9.        GoGrid, "Cloud Computing Adoption Slower than Expected," 2012. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 14 August 2013].

10.     R. Sahandi, A. Alkhalil and J. Opara-Martins, "Cloud Computing from SMEs Perspective: A Survey-Based Investigation," Journal of Information Technology Management, vol. XXIV, no. 1, p. 1–12, 2013. 

11.     J. P. Veigas, V. Naik and K. Chandrasekaran, "Cloud Computing Adoption and Impact in Emerging Markets," IRNet Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 89-95, 2012. 

12.     A. Rath, S. Kumar, S. Mohapatra and R. Thakurta, "Decision points for adoption cloud computing in small, medium enterprises (SMEs)," in International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 10-12 December, London, 2012. 

13.     M. Tan and T. Lin, "Exploring Organizational Adoption of Cloud Computing in Singapore," in The 19th ITS Biennial Conference 2012, "Moving Forward with Future Technologies: Opening a Platform for All”, Thailand, 18 - 21 November, 2012. 

14.     M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica and M. Zaharia, "A View of Cloud Computing," Communications of the ACM, vol. 53, no. 4, p. 50–58, 2010. 

15.     S. Marston, Z. Li, S. Bandyopadhyay , J. Zhang and A. Ghalsasi, "Cloud computing –The business perspective," Decision Support Systems, vol. 51, p. 176–189, 2011. 

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18.     N. A. Sultan, "Reaching for the “cloud”: How SMEs can manage," International Journal of Information Management, vol. 31, p. 272–278, 2011. 

19.     L. Vaquero, L. Rodero-Merino, J. Caceres and M. Lindner, "A Break in the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 50–55, 2009. 

20.     M. A. Vouk, "Cloud Computing – Issues, Research and Implementations," in Proceedings of the ITI 2008 30th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, June 23-26, Cavtat, Croatia, 2008. 

21.     J. Zabalza, R. Rio-Belver , E. Cilleruelo, G. Garechana and J. Gavilanes, "Benefits Related to Cloud Computing in the SMEs," in 6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management, Vigo, Spain, July 18–20, 2012. 

22.     C. Kloch, E. B. Petersen and O. B. Madsen, "Cloud Based Infrastructure, the New Business Possibilities and Barriers," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 58, p. 17–30, 2011. 
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25.     I. Son and D. Lee, "Assessing a New IT Service Model: Cloud Computing," in Proceedings of Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Brisbane, Australia, 7–11 July, 2011. 

26.     T. Oliveira and M. F. Martins, "Literature Review of Information Technology Adoption Models at Firm Level," The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 110-121, 2011. 

27.     K. Zhu, S. Dong, S. Xu and K. L. Kraemer, "Innovation diffusion in global contexts: determinants of post-adoption digital transformation of European companies," European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 15, p. 601–616, 2006. 

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29.     K. Zhu, S. Xu and D. Dedrick, "Assessing drivers of e-business value: results of a cross-country study," in ICIS 2003: 24th International Conference on Information Systems, Seattle, 15–17 December, 2003. 

30.     H. P. Borgman, B. Bahli, H. Heier and F. Schewski, "Cloudrise: Exploring Cloud Computing Adoption and Governance with the TOE Framework," in HICSS 2013: 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Wailea, HI, USA, January 7–10, 2013. 

31.     C. Y. Lin, "The Adoption of Innovative Information Technologies by Logistics Service Providers in Taiwan," International Journal of the Information Systems for Logistics and Management, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 89–97, 2006. 

32.     S. K. Lippert and C. Govindarajulu, "Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Antecedents to Web Services Adoption," Communications of the IIMA, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 146–158, 2006. 

33.     J. E. Scott, "An e-Transformation Study Using the Technology–Organization–Environment Framework," in 20th Bled eConference, eMergence: Merging and Emerging Technologies, Processes, and Institutions, Bled, Slovenia, June 4-6, 2007. 

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38.     T. C. Tan, "A perception-based model for technological innovation in small and medium enterprises," in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems, Pretoria, South Africa, 2010. 

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43.     M. B. Subrahmanya, M. Mathirajan and K. N. Krishnaswam, "Importance of Technological Innovation for SME Growth: Evidence from India," United Nations University: World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki, Finland, 2010.

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Neelendra Badal, Divya

Paper Title:

Semantic Web Service Description, Discovery and Integration using Schema Matching Method

Abstract: As the World Wide Web has grown, the next step of World Wide Web is web services. Web is the collection of services that interoperate with the help of internet. All the programmable materials are to be placed in the web sites which are accessed by others with the help of distributed nature of the network. The Universal Description, Discovery and Integration are used to describe, discover and integrate the relevant web services. Universal Description, Discovery and Integration are the distributed web-based information registries of web services. The information’s are described in the various domain Ontology and Generic Procedures. Web is alone not sufficient to describe the data because single web is not capable to carry all the information. Here, the word “Semantic Web” plays important role due to its property that is a combination of number of services. In this work Services are described via Web Service Description Language, Resource Description Framework and Ontology Web Language etc. in Semantic Web for better results. Further, the described Services in Knowledge bases are discovered with the help of schema matching algorithm. In this work schema matching algorithm is based on various different similarity measures. The modified architecture for the discovery of web services has also been presented in this work. After the description and discovery of web services, the integration of these services is required with the services offered by different-different business. The Composition methods are used for integrating these web services in this presented work. When the required services are discovered services are automatically integrated and provide the services to the customers. In this work semantic schema method has been used for the description, discovery and integration of web services. The new discovered services are also kept in the knowledge bases for the further future consideration. An experimental result has been also presented in this work which also shows that semantic schema matching is better than simple UDDI. 

Ontology and Generic Procedures, Web Service Description Language, Resource Description Framework.


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R. Bhavya, N. Nithya

Paper Title:

Efficient Hierachical Route Allocation for Underwater Sensor Network

Abstract: Time synchronization is an important requirement for many services provided by distributed networks. A lot of time synchronization protocols have been proposed for terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). However, none of them can be directly applied to Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs). A synchronization algorithm for UWSNs must consider additional factors such as long propagation delays from the use of acoustic communication and sensor node mobility. These unique challenges make the accuracy of synchronization procedures for UWSNs even more critical. Time synchronization solutions specifically designed for UWSNs are needed to satisfy these new requirements. This paper proposes Mobi-Sync, a novel time synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks. Mobi-Sync distinguishes itself from previous approaches for terrestrial WSN by considering spatial correlation among the mobility patterns of neighboring UWSNs nodes. This enables Mobi-Sync to accurately estimate the long dynamic propagation delays. Simulation results show that Mobi-Sync outperforms existing schemes in both accuracy and energy efficiency.



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5.        L. Hanzo II and R. Tafazolli, “Admission Control Schemes for 802.11-Based Multi-Hop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey,”  IEEE Comm. Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 78-108, Oct.- Dec. 2009.

6.        L. Hanzo II and R. Tafazolli, “A Survey of QoS Routing Solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Comm. Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 50-70, Apr.-June 2007.

7.        D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, eds., vol. 353, pp. 153-181, Kluwer Academic, 1996.

8.        L. Kleinrock and J. Silvester, “Spatial Reuse in Multi-Hop Packet Radio Networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 156-167, 1987.

9.        L. Luo, M. Gruteser, H. Liu, D. Raychaudhuri, K. Huang, and S. Chen, “A QoS Routing and Admission Control Scheme for 802.11  Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 19-28, Sept. 2006.

10.     A. Lindgren and E. Belding-Royer, “Multi-Path Admission Control for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 68-71, 2004.

11.     C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, “Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Application, pp. 90-100, Feb. 1999.

12.     R. Renesse, V. Friderikos, and H. Aghvami, “Cross-Layer Cooperation for Accurate Admission Control Decisions in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IET Comm., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 577-586, 2007.

13.     H. Wu, Y. Liu, Q. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang, “SoftMAC: Layer 2.5 Collaborative MAC for Multimedia Support in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 12- 25, Jan. 2007.




Priyanka Singh, Rani Devi, R. S. Hooda, M. S. Grewal

Paper Title:

Map and Identify Desurfaced Soils in Rohtak and Jhajjar District in Last Five Years Using RS

Abstract: In the past century, industrialisation and urbanization have created many environmental problems like air, water and soil pollution. As the result of soil desurfacing by brick kilns the soil fertility is affected. Increasing population and human interventions are responsible factors for environmental degradation. In the National capital region construction activity is on the peak and for this requirement for the bricks has increased many times. The focus of this study is to map and identify the desurfaced soils due to brick kilns in Jhajjar and Rohtak districts which lies in the NCR in the years 2007 and 2012. The desurfaced area of 2007 and 2012 is digitized and map is developed.

 Cartosat-I, Worldview-II, Brick kiln, GIS, RS.


1.        Prasad, C. R. S. and others: Use of landsat imagery for mapping soil and land resources for development plaC\nning in parts of northern Karnataka, India. Int. Jr. Remote Sensing, 11(10): 1889-1900 (1990).
2.        Raina, P.: Assessment of soil degradation hazards in Jalor and Ahor tehsil of Jalor District (Western Rajasthan) by remote sensing. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing, 22(3): 169-181 (1994).

3.        Rao, U. R.: Remote sensing for sustainable development, J. Indian Soc. Remote Sensing, 19(4): 217-235 (1991).

4.        Yadav, S. K.: Management of Degraded Soil for Sustainable development Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in South Delhi Region (India). PhD Thesis  Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (1997).

5.        Malik,R.P., Shanwal,A.V. and Iyer,H.S.(1984). Identification and delineation of saline soils using aerial photographs in Yamuna alluvial plain of Haryana. Journal Ind.soc. Photo int. And Remote sensing  12: 59-64

6.        Moharana,P.C. and Singh, Nepal.(2000). Characterization of degraded landforms in Balotra –Pachpadra area of Arid Western Rajasthan usingRemote sensing Techniques. J. Indian Soc. Of Soil Science ,vol.,49,no.1,pp.154-163.

7.        Pradip Sharma,Dhanjit DEKA AND RAJAN SAIKIA. An analysis of changing land use pattern and its effect on Umtrew basin Northeast India. Hungarian Geographical bulletin 60(1) (2011) pp.67-78.

8.        Alba Yadira Corral Avitia and Antonio DeLa Mora Cavarrubias.Environmental Assessment of Brick kilns in ChichuahuaState,Mexico,usingDigitalCartography.(2011

9.        R.B. Singh, “ Brick Kiln Industry as Drivers of Land-Use Change and Related Land Degradation in Rural-Urban Fringe of Delhi, - Sustainable urban development, 2006

10.     Remote Sensing Based Management of Degraded Soil Due to Brick Industry for Sustainable Development–A Case Study S.K. Yadav - J. Hum. Ecol, 2003. Brick kiln industry prevailing in SSW of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Campus, New Delhi. 

11.     M.S.Grewal and M.S.Kuhad Soil Desurfacing–Impact on Productivity and Its Management Department of Soil Science, Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125 004, India .12th ISCO Conference Beijing 2002

12.     Kachhwala T S. (1985). Temporal monitoring of forest land for change detection and forest cover mapping through satellite remote sensing. In: Proceedings of the 6th Asian Conf. On Remote Sensing. Hyderabad, pp 77–83. 

13.     Chilar J. (2000). Land cover mapping of large areas from satellites: status and research priorities. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21(67): 1093–1114 

14.     Blaike and Brook field( 1987) soil resources information for natural resources census, AP

15.     Kathuria(2007) Environmental cost of using top-soil for brick making – A case study from India.(Plate 2 in Appendix 1) EAERE (2008)

16.     Suman Kumar Pariyar, Tapash Das, Tanima Ferdous (May2013) Environment And Health Impact For Brick Kilns In Kathmandu Valley international journal of scientific & technology research volume 2, issue 5, May 2013 ISSN 2277-8616.

17.     Bruno Glaser • Johannes Lehmann • Wolfgang Zech Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review Received: 24 April 2001 / Accepted: 5 March 2002 / Published online: 18 April 2002

18.     King et al, 2005; Bou Kheir et al, 2006 and Miller et al, 2007) 8th International Soil Science Congress on Land Degradation and Challenges in Sustainable Soil Management




Kushal Dhawad, R. D. Patane, Vittesh Naphade

Paper Title:

Efficient Speed Control of 3-ph Induction Motor with Two Stage IPFC Using 1-ph Supply

Abstract: Today in industry, 3-ph IM are being used at very wide scale. So  its speed control according to specific requirement is very important. Also many times, 3-ph IM are to be operated with easily available 1-ph supply. For this, proposed mechanism of improving input power factor here is very efficient and reliable. At input terminal, high performance Two Stage Interleaved Power Factor Correction technique (IPFC) with boost topology operating with discontinuous current conduction is used. With this circuit, 3rd order harmonics can be eliminated upto completely from the input supply. Also it will help to achieve almost UNITY pf with rated power supply. With this type of 3-ph supply provided to the IM, Reactive power generation can be minimised which leads to efficient control over the wastage of Reactive power and use of Reactive power compensation techniques. So the overall cost of operating 3-ph IM can be minimised.

 Two stage Boost topology, Discontinuous current conduction, IPFC, Sine-wave PWM, 3-ph bridge Inverter.


1.        An Interleaving PFC Pre-Regulator for High-Power Converters: Michael O’Loughlin, Texas Instruments.
2.        Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor using Single Phase Supply along with Active Power Factor Correction: Sanjay L Kurkute, Pradeep E &TC Dept., RSCOE, Pune (M.S.) INDIA, M Patil Electronics Dept.VIT, Pune (M.S.) INDIA

3.        Implementation of Modified Reference PWM for Reducing the Harmonics in Inverters by using Matlab/Simulink: G.Sudha Rani1 ,Rasool Ahemmed.SK , N.Lavanya M.Tech Student, Dept. of EEE, KL University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, India Assistant Professor, Dept. of EEE, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, India Research Scholar, Dept. of EEE, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, India

4.        Estimative Current Mode Control Technique for DC–DC Converters Operating in Discontinuous Conduction Mode: M. Ferdowsi, Student Member, IEEE, and A. Emadi, Senior Member, IEEE.

5.        EE Powerpoint Symbol Collection Logic Elements.

6.        Understanding Boost Power Stages in Switchmode Power Supplies: Everett Rogers, Texas Instruments.

*Department of Electrical Engineering**Department of Electronics and Informatics University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova – ITALY
8.        Improving Efficiency & Reliability Using Interleaved Boundary Condition Mode Power Factor Correction by John Harper, Fairchild Semiconductor.




Razia Begum, Ahsan Habib, Hosne Ara Begum

Paper Title:

Adobe Bricks Stabilized with Cement and Natural Rubber Latex

Abstract: This study seeks to assist people in rural areas of Bangladesh by proposing sustainable methods which implement affordable and durable adobe bricks for construction. Adobe one of the oldest building materials in the world, is strong when dry but lacks structural integrity when exposed to moisture. Chemical additives such as cement and natural rubber latex are added into the adobe mixture to protect the brick against moisture decomposition. Once the chemicals are added and the mixture is formed into a brick, a stabilized adobe brick is formed. The tested brick mixes, measured by volume were 1:1:1 (Soil: Fine Sand: Cement) with natural rubber latex 0, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05% (by wt of water). After testing these bricks by water jet, submersion, Water absorption,  modulus of rupture and compression, 1:1:1 soil, fine sand, cement with natural rubber latex 05% proved to be viable options for economical and durable bricks. This study explores that cement and natural rubber latex in adobe brick effects optimum compressive strength and low water absorption. The results provide a guideline for producing adobe brick containing cement and natural rubber latex with improved compressive strength and low water absorption. Adobe brick with performance improved in this ways will be beneficial for developing low cost architecture for local people and for building hotels and recreation facilities for the tourism industry.

 Chemical additives, water jet, submersion, Water absorption, modulus of rupture.


1.        Houben, H. and Guillaud, H., 1994. Earth construction: a comprehensive guide. London: IT Publications.
2.        Taylor, C.R. (2009) Building for free with alternative natural materials. Retrieved on 23 January 2009, from www.

3.        Binici,H., Aksogan, O.,Nuri,B.M., Akca,E., & kapur,S.(2007). Thermal isolation and mechanical properties of fibre reinforced mud bricks as wall materials. Construction and Building Materials, 21,901-906.

4.        Eyre, T.T. (1935), The Physical Properties of Adobe used as a Building Material. The University of New Mexico Bulletin, No. 263, Albuquerque.

5.        Winterkorn, H.F., 1975. Soil stabilization, Foundation engineering handbook, H.F. Winterkorn and H.-Y. Fang, eds., Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.

6.        Akpokodje, E.G.1985. The stabilization of some arid zone soils with cement and lime. Quarterly journal of engineering geology, 18,173-180.
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9.        Symons, W. G., 1999. Properties of Australian soils stabilized with cementitious binders, Structural Materials and Assemblies Group Univ. of South Australia, The Levels, South Australia.

10.     Walker, P.J., 2004. Strength and erosion characteristics of earth blocks and earth block masonry, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 16(5), 497-506.

11.     Croft, J.B., 1968. The problem in prediction the suitability of soils for cementatious stabilization Engineering Geology (Amsterdam), 2(6) 397-424.

12.     Bryan, A.J., 1988b. Soil/cement as a walling material-I. Stress/strain Properties. Build environment, 23(4), 321-330.

13.     Walker, P.J., 1995. Strength, durability and shrinkage characteristics of cement stabilized soil blocks. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 17, 301-310.
14.     Bell, F.G. 1996. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils, Eng. Geol. (Amsterdam), 42 (4),223-237.
15.     Ngowi, A.B.,1997. Improving the traditional earth construction: A case study of Botswana. Construction building materials, 11(1), 1-7.

16.     Reddy, B.V.V., and Gupta, A. 2005. Characteristics of soil-cement block using highly sandy soils. Materials and structures, 38(6), 651-658.

17.     ASTM D4318 (ASTM 2006). Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.

18.     (Micek 2006) Micek, joel, et al.. Adobe Brick Design. Senior Project. California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. 2006.

19.     (ASTM C20) Standard Test Methods for water absorption.

20.     (ASTM 2006) " Standard Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Dimension Stone" ASTM. (2006): C99-87

21.     (ASTM 2006) " Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Dimension Stone." ASTM. (2006): C170-06.

22.     Installing ceramic tile veneers with latex modified mortar and grouts, Ceramic tile institute of America, INC. 12061 Jefferson Blvd., Culver City, CA 90230-6219

23.     (Morel, Pkla, and Walker 2005) Morel, Jean-Claude, Abalo Pkla, and Peter Walker. "Compressive strength testing of compressed earth blocks." Construction and Building Materials. 21(2007) 303-309.
24.     Terzaghi, K., Brazelton, P.r., & Gholamreza, M.(1996). Physical properties of soils. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice.New York: Wiley-IEEE.




Parkhe Ravindra, Mhaske Raman, Belkar Sanjay

Paper Title:

Modeling and Analysis of Carbon Fiber Epoxy Based Leaf Spring under the Static Load Condition by Using FEA

Abstract: This paper describes design and analysis of composite mono leaf spring. Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. In the present work, existing mono steel leaf spring of a light vehicle is taken for modeling and analysis. A composite mono leaf spring with Carbon/Epoxy composite materials is modeled and subjected to the same load as that of a steel spring. The design constraints were stresses and deflections. The composite mono leaf springs have been modeled by considering Varying cross-section, with unidirectional fiber orientation angle for each lamina of a laminate. Static analysis of a 3-D model has been performed using ANSYS 12.0. Compared to mono steel leaf spring the laminated composite mono leaf spring is found lesser stresses and weight reduction of 22.5% is achieved.

 Composite leaf spring (LCLS), Static analysis, Carbon/Epoxy, ANSYS 12. 


1.        Mouleeswaran Senthil kumar, sabapathy vijayarangam; ‘Analytical and Experimental Studies on Fatigue Life Prediction of Steel and Composite Multi-leaf Spring for Light Passenger Vehicles Using Life Data Analysis’ Materials Science, 13(2), 2007, 141-146. 
2.        Malaga. Anil Kumar, T.N.Charyulu, Ch.Ramesh,‘Design Optimization Of Leaf Spring’ (IJERA), Vol 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.759-765.

3.        H.A. AL-Qureshi, Automobile Leaf springs from composite materials”, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 118, 2001, 58-61. 

4.        I Rajendran, S. Vijayarangan, “Design and Analysis of a Composite Leaf spring”, Journal of Institute of Engineers India, 82, 2002, 180-187 

5.        Gulur Siddaramanna Shiva Shankar, Sambagam Vjayarangan; “Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Light Weight Vehicle Design, End Joint Analysis”. and Testing Materials Science, 12 (3), 2006, 220-225. 

6.        M. Raghavedra, Syed Altaf Hussain, V. Pandurangadu, K. PalaniKumar ‘ Modeling and Analysis of Laminated Composite Leaf Spring under the Static Load Condition by using FEA’, (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug. 2012 pp-1875-1879.




Mhaske Raman, Parkhe Ravindra, Shripad Nimbalkar

Paper Title:

C-Glass/Epoxy Composite Material- A Replacement for Steel in Conventional Leaf Spring for Weight Reduction

Abstract: Weight reduction is the prime focus of automobile manufacturer. In automobile leaf spring is potential item for weight reduction which accounts for 10-25 % of unsprung weight. Material with maximum strength and minimum modulus of elasticity is most suitable for leaf spring, and composite spring reduces weight of automobile without reducing the load carrying capacity. In present project work comparative analysis of c-glass/epoxy composite leaf spring and steel leaf spring is done by analytical, FEA using ANSYS 12. The result of FEA is also experimentally verified. Study demonstrates that the composite can be used for leaf spring for the light vehicle and meet the requirement, together with the sustainable weight reduction. The stresses induced in the C-glass/Epoxy composite leaf spring are 69% less than that of the steel spring nearly. This study leaves wide scope for future investigations. It can be extended to newer composites using other reinforcing phases and the resulting experimental findings can be similarly analyzed. 

 Leaf spring, Composite Glass Fibre Reinforced plastic (GFRP).


1.        Mahmood M. Shokrieh, Davood Rezaei. Analysis and optimization of a composite leaf spring. Composite Structures 60 (2003) 317–325.
2.        J.J. Fuentes, H.J. Aguilar, J.A. Rodriguez, E.J. Herrera. Premature fracture in automobile leaf springs. Engineering Failure Analysis 16 (2009) 648–655.

3.        Al-Quershi HA. Automobile leaf springs from composite materials. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 118 (2000) 58–61.

4.        C. Subramanian, S. Senthilvelan. Joint performance of the glass fiber reinforced polypropylene leaf spring. Composite structure 93(2011) 759-766.

5.        Abdul Rahim Abu Talib, Aidy Ali, G. Goudah, Nur Azida Che Lah, A.F. Golestaneh. Developing a composite based elliptic spring for automotive applications. Materials and Design 31 (2010) 475–484.




Madhusudanan V, Anitha K, Vijaya S, Gunasekran M

Paper Title:

Dynamics in Discrete Time Prey-Predator System with Quadratic Harvesting on Prey

Abstract: This paper describes the Stability Analysis of Discrete time Prey-Predator on equilibrium and find the local Stability conditions near equilibrium points. A geometrical representation of the trajectories of dynamical system in the phase portraits are obtained for different set of parameter and time series for selective range of growth parameter are represented here. Harvesting activity of the Prey and Prey-Predator population are investigated through Chaotic Dynamic System. Times Series for both Prey and Predator separately analyzed  for different values of harvesting.. Numerical Simulations are presented here for explaining complex dynamical behaviors  of Bifurcation 

 Prey-Predator system, Local Stability, Quadratic harvesting, Phase portraits.


1.        Agiza HN, Elabbasy EM, EL-Metwally H, et al.2009. Chaotic dynamics of a discrete prey-predator model with Holling type II. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, 10:116-129              
2.        Danca N,Codreanu S, Bako B.1997. Detailed analysis of nonlinear prey-predator model.  Journal of Biological Physics, 23 :11-20.

3.        J.Dhar,  A Prey-Predator model with diffusion and a supplementary resource for Prey in a two patch environment, Mathematical Modeling and Analysis, 9 (2004), 9-24

4.        Elasadany AA. 2012. Dynamical Complexities in a discrete-time food chain.  Computational Ecology and Software, 2(2): 124-139.

5.        Holling CS. 1965. The functional response of predator to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 45: 1-60

6.        Jing ZJ, Chang Y, Guo B.2004. Bifurcation and chaos discrete FitzHuge-Nagumo system, chaos, Solutions and Fractals, 27: 259-277.

7.        Jing ZJ, Yang J. 2006. Bifurcation and chaos discrete-time predator-prey system. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals,27: 259-277

8.        N.P.Kumar, B.R.Reddy, Ramacharyulu, A two species Commensalism model with limited resourses- A numerical Approach, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6, No.2(2011).

9.        N.P.Kumar, B.R.Reddy, Pattabhiramacharyulu, A Model mutually interacting species with limited resources of first species and unlimited for second species, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6,No.1(2011).

10.     Liu XL, Xiao DM. Complex dynamic behaviors of a discrete-time predator prey system. Chaos, Solutions and Fractals, 32: 80-94

11.     Lotka, A.J., "Contribution to the Theory of Periodic Reaction", J. Phys. Chem., 14 (3), pp 271–274 (1910).

12.     K.L.Narayan, N.C.P.Ramacharyulu, A Prey-Predator model with an alternative food for the predator, harvesting of both the species and with a gestation period for interaction, Int.J.Opne Problems Compt.Math., 1, No.1 (2008).

13.     Voltera V. 1962. Opere matematiche:mmemorie e note, Vol V. Roma (Cremon): Acc. Naz. dei Lincei, Italy




V. Selvan, R. Sundararajan

Paper Title:

Experimental Study on Torsional Reinforcement of Reinforced Cement Concrete Slab with Various End Conditions

Abstract: Reinforced concrete is the principal material for military engineering and nuclear power plant containment. Reinforced concrete slabs are used in floors, roofs and walls of buildings and as the decks of bridges. The floor system of a structure can take many forms such as in situ solid slab, ribbed slab or pre-cast units. By providing torsion reinforcement, corners are usually prevented from being lifted up. In such cases the corners have to be suitably reinforced at top and also at bottom otherwise cracks are liable to be formed at the corners. The present investigation is intended to study the influence of torsion reinforcement in reinforced concrete slab with end condition all ends discontinuous under uniformly distributed load.  Slabs with torsion reinforcement varying from 0% to 30% were casted and tested. Increasing in the torsion reinforcement controls the deflection of the slab element. As the torsion reinforcement increases the corners are being held down. At the maximum of 30% of main reinforcement was provided as torsion reinforcement corners are not held down completely and there is a considerable decrease in central deflection also.

 Torsion reinforcement, central deflection, Slabs.


1.        W.H.Mosley, J.H. Bungery & R. Husle (1999), Reinforced Concrete Design (5th Edition): Palgrave.
2.        Reinforced Concrete Modul, (1st Edition). USM.

3.        BS 8110, Part 1: 1985, The Structural Use of Concrete. Code of Practice for Design and Construction.

4.        Abdel Wahid., and Prabhakara Bhatt., “Tests on reinforced concrete slabs designed by direct design procedure”, ACI journal, November- December 1986, pp 916-923

5.        ACI Committee 435, “State-of-the-Art Report on Control of Two-way Slab Deflections”, ACI Structural Journal, V.88, No.4, July-august 1991, pp 501-514.

6.        David P.Thompson., and Andrew Scanlon., “Minimum Thickness Requirements for control of Two-way slab deflections”, ACI- Structural Journal, Jan-Feb 1988 

7.        Gene Alan Metz., “Flexural failure tests of reinforced concrete slabs”, Proceedings, ACI, January 1965, 105-114

8.        B.C.Punmia., “Reinforced Concrete Structures”.

9.        Beeby. A.W., “The  Prediction and Control of Flexural Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Slabs Systems”, SP-30, Proceedings,ACI,1971, pp. 55-75

10.     Goli.H.B., and RamBabu.K, ‘A simplified Approach to Design Orthotrophic Slabs”, Journal of Structural Engineering(Madras),V.26,No.4,January 2000, pp.249-258

11.     Hung.T., and Nawy,G.G., “Limit Strength and Serviceability Factors in Uniformly Loaded, Isotrophically Reinforced Two-Way Slabs”, Cracking, Deflection and ultimate Load Systems, SP-30, Proceedings,ACI,1971, pp. 301-324

12.     I-Kunag Fang., Ju-Hein Lee, and Chun-ray Chen., “Behaviour of Partially Restrained Slabs under Concentrated Load”, ACI- Structural Journal, V91,No.2,March-April 1994, pp. 133-139.




Dipali A. Badade, Poonam R. Deokar, Deepali B. Chavan, Manisha B. Bomble, Devidas Thosar

Paper Title:

Real Time Optical Character Recognition based on Feed Forward Networks

Abstract: Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the mechanical or electronic translation of images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text. The main aim of this project is to design an expert system which will be best to, “Optical Character Recognition” that effectively can recognize a particular character of type format using the Feed Forward approach. OCR is a field of research in artificial intelligence, in pattern recognition and also in machine vision. Though academic research in the field that continues, the focus on OCR has been shifted to implementation of proven techniques. Optical character recognition (using optical techniques such as mirrors and lenses) and digital character recognition (using scanners and computer algorithms) were originally considered as separate fields. Because a very few applications survive that use the true optical techniques, the OCR term has been broadened now to include digital image processing as well. This system will be applicable of recognizing any number of characters including uppercase, lowercase alphabets and numerals.

 Optical Character Recognition, Feed Forward Networks, Image  Processing, Artificial Intelligence. 


1.        “Visual Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks” Shashank Araokar* MGM’s College of Engineering and Technology, University of Mumbai, India




Hemant Singh Pokhariya, Ravi Kukreti, Saurabh Maithani

Paper Title:

Implementation of Probablity Using FIR Filter

Abstract: This paper develops a method which resolves the problems faced in mathematically calculating the probability of occurring an event. It develops a technique which determines probability of occurring an event in case of dice and coins by using the response of a FIR filter through MATLAB (matrix laboratory) by creating a relationship between response of an FIR filter and probability of occurring an event.

 Digital, Direct-1, Fir Filter, Gain, Matlab, Probability, Response, Simulation.


1.        FELLER W.(1957) An Introduction to Probablity THEORY and its Applications Vol.I (3rd  ed. 1968) Wiley,New York 
2.        A.Papoulis:”Probablity,Random Variables,and Stochastic process”McGRAW−HILL International editions,third edition,1991 

3.        A.Antoniou”Digital Signal Processing”Signal,Systems and Filters,McGRAW-HILL,2005.

4.  J.F. Kaiser,”Non recursive digital filter design using 10−sinh window function in Proc.IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and systems(ISCAS’74),San Francisco,Calif,USA,PP.20−23,April 1974.

5.        Steven M. Kay, ”Fundamentals of statistical signal processing :practical algorithm development,vol III,Prentice Hall, 2013.




Shraddha S. Mandhane, Amol P. More

Paper Title:

A Review: Evaluation of Design Parameters of Dental Implant Abutment

Abstract: Dental implant is used to hold the artificial tooth into its proper position in human jaw. It serves the purpose of natural root which is there in natural tooth. Most of the dental implants are parallel or slightly tapered in shape but not as tapered as the natural roots. But due to some space and accessible constraint, it is not possible to provide taper same as that of the natural root.  Failures of implant–abutment connections are relatively frequent clinical problems. So there is a need of analysis of dental implant abutment. For that research has been done on the existing design with its limitation. This paper focuses on Analysis and techniques used for evaluation of Dental Implant.

 Dental Implant, Design Parameter, Evaluation, Analysis.


1.        Wener Winter, Stefan Holst “Effect of geometric parameters on finite element analysis of bone loading caused by nonpassivly fitting implant-supported dental restoration” Quintessence  International 2011;42:471-478.
2.        Hussam El-Din El-Sheikh “ Design Developeent of an Endosseous Dental Implant ” J Prosthet Dent, 92:523-530, 2004. 

3.        Bijan Heidari, Hossein Bisadi , Behnam Heidari And  Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh “ Influence of Different Tapered Implants on Stress and Strain Distribution in Bone and Implant: A Finite Element Analysis”  J Periodontol Implant Dent 2009; 1(1):11-19 

4.        Hong Guan,Rudi Van Staden,Newell Johson  “Influence of Bone and Dental Implant Parameters on Stress Distribution in the Mandible: A Finite Element Study” Int.J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2009;24;866-876

5.        Abilio Ricciardi Coppede,Adriana Claudia Lapria Faria,Jail Awad Shibli  “Mechanical Coparison of Experimental Conical-Head Abutment Screws with Conventional Flat-Head Abutment Screws for External-Hex and Internal Tri-Channel Implant Connections:An In Vitro Evaluation of Loosening Torque” Int.J Oral Maxillofac Implant 2013;28:e321-e329.

6.        Sarthak Seth, Parveen Kalra  “Effect of Dental Implant Parameters on Stress Distribution at Bone-Implant Interface” -International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-  7064 volume2 Issue 6,2013.121-124.

7.        Payam Faghihi1, M. M. Mohammadi2, Dr. M. Besharati Ghivi   “Fabrication of Mini and Micro Dental Implants using Micro Investment Casting and Its Challenges” International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations   ISSN: 2251-8843  ;2013;97-101

8.        Rahul Prasad , Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Kheraif  “Three –Dimensional Accuracy of CAD/CAM Titanium and Ceramic Superstructures for Implant Abutment Using Spiral Scan Microtomography” Int J Prosthodont 2013;26;451-457.

9.        SR Desai, MS Desai1, G Katti2, I Karthikeyan  “Evaluation of design parameters of eight dental implant designs: A two dimensional finite element analysis” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ; 2012 ; 15( 2);176-181.

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