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Volume-1 Issue-12: Published on October 25, 2013
37
Volume-1 Issue-12: Published on October 25, 2013

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Volume-1 Issue-12, October 2013, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

M. Karthik, P. Arul

Paper Title:

Optimal Power Flow Control Using FACTS Devices

Abstract: In any power system, unexpected outages of lines or transformers occur due to faults or other disturbances. These events, referred to as contingencies, may cause significant overloading of transmission lines or transformers, which in turn may lead. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide a new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control.  Static VAR controllers control only one of three important parameters (voltage, impedance, phase angle) determining the power flow in the AC power system viz. the amplitude of voltage at selected terminals of transmission line .Overloading Power flow control, in an existing long transmission line, plays a vital role in Power System area. In this the Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyrister Controlled Series Capacitor (TSCS) based  FACTS device for minimize the losses and power flow in long distance transmission line. The problem of determining the optimal SVC and TCSC parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and a N-R method  based approach is applied to solve the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. Simulations are done on IEEE 30 bus system for a few harmful contingencies. 

Keywords:
FACTS, Optimal Power flow, SVC (Static Var Compensator), TCSC.


References:

1.        N.G. Hingorani, and L. Gyugyi, "Understanding FACTS; Concepts and   Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems”, IEEE Press, New York, 1993.
2.        N. M. G. Kumar, P. Venkatesh, Dr. P. Sangamewara Raju,”Modelling and Analysis of SVC, TCSC, TCPAR in Power Flow Studies”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013.

3.        Mrinal Ranjan and B. Vedik,” Optimal Location of FACTS Devices in a Power System by Means of Sensitivity Analysis”, Trends in Electrical and Computer Engineering TECE 1(1) 1-9, 2011.

4.        D. Devaraj and  R. Narmatha Banu,” Optimal Power Flow for Steady State Security Enhancement using Enhanced Genetic Algorithm with FACTS Devices”, Asian Power Electronics Journal, Vol. 4, No.3 December 2010.

5.        G. RaghuBabu, G. Ashok kumar and M.B. Pavan Kumar, “Optimal     Power Flow Enhancement In Deregulated Power Systems With Series Facts Devices”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

6.        M. Basu,” Optimal power flow with FACTS devices using differential evolution”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems 30 (2008) 150–156.

7.        “Power System Analysis” by Hadi Saadat, Mc   Graw-Hill Publications, 2004

8.        Neeba Elizabeth Jose, K.Ramesh,“ Survey on Optimal Power Flow under Security Constraints” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013

9.        Abouzar Samimi, Peyman Naderi,”A New Method      for Optimal Placement of TCSC Based on Sensitivity Analysis for Congestion Management”, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2012, 3, 10-16

10.     R. Mohan Mathur. “Thyristor based FACTScontrollers for electrical transmission systems”. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering, Wiley-Interscience. 2002

11.     Douglas J. Gotham ,G. T. Heydt, “Power Flow Control And Power Flow Studies For Systems With Facts Devices”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 13, No. 1, February 1998

12.     A.K.Sahoo,S.S.Dash,T.Thyagarajan, “Power Flow Study Including FACTS Devices”, Journal of Applied Sciences 10(15):1563-1571,2010,ISSN 1812-5654


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2.

Authors:

M. I. Youssef, A. E. Emam, S. M. Saafan, M. Abd Elghany

Paper Title:

Secured Image Encryption Scheme Using both Residue Number System and DNA Sequence

Abstract: This paper proposes a new image encryption scheme that uses DNA sequences and Residue number system. The design of this scheme is based on the binary to residue data message conversion, then impeding the message secretly inside the DNA sequence. This merge will be leaded to perform multilayer encryption with different keys to increase the security and more flexibility, with less complexity. As the security is one of the most important issues in communication systems, the evolvement of cryptography and cryptographic analysis are considered as the fields of ongoing research. Thus, a straight forward algorithm that achieves efficiency as multi-layer encryption techniques are implemented.

Keywords:
DNA, Image, Encryption, Residue number system.


References:

1.        A. Ammar, A.Al Kabbany, M. Youssef and A. Emam, “A Secure image coding scheme using Residue Number System”, in proceedings of the 18th National Radio science conference, Egypt, pp. 339- 405, March 2001.
2.        Clelland, C. T., Risca, V. and Bancroft, C., Hiding Messages in DNA Microdots, Nature, Vol. 399, 1999, pp.533-534.

3.        Leier, A., Richter, C., Banzhaf, W. and Rauhe, H., Cryptography with DNA Binary Strands, BioSystems, Vol. 57, 2000, pp.13-22.

4.        Shimanovsky, B., Feng, J. and Potkonjak, M., Hiding Data in DNA, Revised Paper from the 5th International Workshop on Information Hiding, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2578, 2002, pp.373-386.

5.        European Bioinformatics Institute, URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk

6.        M. Schena, “Microarray Analysis”, Wiley-Liss, July 2003.

7.        K. W. Watson, “Self-checking computations using residue arithmetic,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 1920–1931, Dec. 1966.

8.        E. D. D. Claudio, G. Orlandi, and F. Piazza, “A systolic redundant residue arithmetic error correction circuit,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 42, pp. 427–432, Apr. 1993.

9.        H. Krishna and J. D. Sun, “On theory and fast algorithms for error correction in residue number system product codes,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 42, pp. 840–852, July 1993.

10.     H. Z. Hsu and R. C. T. Lee, “DNA Based Encryption Methods”, the 23rd workshop on combinatorial Mathematics and Computation theory.

11.     H. J. SHIU Et Al, “Data hiding methods based upon DNA sequences”, Information sciences, 2010.

12.     H. Elkamchouchi and M. Makar, “Measuring encryption quality for bitmap images encrypted with rijndael and kamkar block ciphers,” in Radio Science Conference, 2005. NRSC 2005. Proceedings of the Twenty-Second National. IEEE, 2005, pp. 277–284.

13.     H. Ahmed, H. Kalash, and O. Allah, “Encryption efficiency analysis and security evaluation of rc6 block cipher for digital images,” in Electrical Engineering, 2007. ICEE’07. International Conference on. IEEE, 2007, pp. 1–7.

14.     I. Elashry, O. Allah, A. Abbas, S. El-Rabaie, and F. El-Samie, “Homomorphic image encryption,” Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 18, p.033002, 2009.

15.     N. El-Fishawy and O. Zaid, “Quality of encryption measurement of bitmap images with rc6, mrc6, and rijndael block cipher algorithms,” International Journal of Network Security, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 241–251, 2007.

16.     S. Kamali, R. Shakerian, M. Hedayati, and M. Rahmani, “A new modified version of advanced encryption standard based algorithm for image encryption,” in Electronics and Information Engineering (ICEIE), 2010 International Conference On, vol. 1. IEEE, 2010, pp. V1–141.

17.     R. Gray, Entropy and information theory. Springer Verlag, 2010.

18.     H. Ahmed, H. Kalash, and O. Allah, “Implementation of rc5 block cipher algorithm for image cryptosystems,” International Journal of Information Technology, vol. 3, no. 4.

19.     R. Enayatifar, “Image encryption via logistic map function and heap tree,” Int. J. Phys. Sci, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 221, 2011.

20.     Z. Han, W. Feng, L. Hui, L. Da Hai, and L. Chou, “A new image encryption algorithm based on chaos system,” in Robotics, Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing, 2003. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE International Conference on, vol. 2. IEEE, 2003, pp. 778–782.


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3.

Authors:

Sambit Kumar Patra, Krishna T. G

Paper Title:

Knowledge-Based EXP Framework (Verifying System and Product Configurations Using MS-Excel, XML and PERL Script)

Abstract: Nowadays, as computers get more advanced each day, so do the software being written for them. This advancement brings about increasing complexity in system configurations. Most, if not all, requirements are mentioned in lengthy user/installation manuals, reading those becomes all the more a tedious job.  Small scripts are being used for automation to verify the configuration.  However managing the scripts became more tedious as the numbers of configurations become huge.  We figured that it would be so much easier on everyone if there could be a framework in place to do the verifications, instead of someone doing it manually. We have come up with a knowledge-based EXP framework which can be extensible using Microsoft Excel, XML schema and PERL script which we intend to verify, things that overlooked, system health check up, product specific optimal value, database and kernel.

Keywords:
Knowledge-based system, EXP framework, system health check-up tool, verifying configuration tool.


References:

1.        Z Pawlak, Rough set approach to knowledge-based decision support, European journal of operational research, 1997, Volume 99, Issue 1, 16 May 1997, Pages 48–57
2.        Pfaffl MW, Tichopad A, Prgomet C, Neuvians TP (2004) Determination of stable housekeeping genes, differentially regulated target genes and sample integrity: BestKeeper—Excel-based tool using pair-wise correlations. Biotechnol Lett 26: 509–515

3.        Yunbo Lia,•  Qiping Shen, “Design of spatial decision support systems for property professionals using MapObjects and Excel”.

4.        W3C, Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, W3C Rec., Feb. 10, 1998.

5.        W3C, XML Schema Part 1: Structures, W3C Rec., May 2, 2001.

6.        D. Berner, J.-P. Talpin, H. D. Patel, D. Mathaikutty, and S. K. Shukla. Systemcxml: An exstensible systemc front end using xml. In FDL, pages 405–409. ECSI, 2005.

7.        David Berner, Jean-Pierre Talpin, “SystemCXML: An Extensible SystemC Front End Using XML”

8.        Dan Davis y and Manish Parashar, “Latency Performance of SOAP Implementations”, Cluster Computing and the Grid, 2002. 2nd IEEE/ACM International Symposium.

9.        Harlan Carvey, Jeremy Faircloth,  Perl Scripting for Windows Security: Live Response, Forensic Analysis, and Monitoring

10.     Y. S. Kuo, Jaspher Wang, and N. C. Shih, “Handling Syntactic Constraints in  a DTD-Compliant XML Editor”

11.     Y. S. Kuo , Lendle Tseng , Hsun-Cheng Hu , N. C. Shih, An XML interaction service for workflow applications, Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Document engineering, October 10-13, 2006, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

12.     Y. S. Kuo , N. C. Shih , Lendle Tseng , Hsun-Cheng Hu, Generating form-based user interfaces for XML vocabularies, Proceedings of the 2005 ACM symposium on Document engineering, November 02-04, 2005, Bristol, United Kingdom

13.     Marc Dymetman, Chart-parsing techniques and the prediction of valid editing moves in structured document authoring, Proceedings of the 2004 ACM symposium on Document engineering, October 28-30, 2004, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.


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4.

Authors:

A. Satya Phani Kumari, Waheed Shafiah

Paper Title:

Psychological Trauma and Mythical Images in ‘A Severed Head’

Abstract: It is arduous and somewhat complex thing to speak about the works of writers who express their multifarious views in an extraordinary way in this empirical world where our great writers are free lances. Very few writers achieve the success path as fiction playwrights and philosophical instigators. By virtue of the extent and variety of her work, the vigour and originality, her influence on art, letters, philosophy and life, and the range and beauty of her style, Iris Murdoch entered the literary scene with her book Sartre: The Romantic Rationalist. This paper deals with the theme and analytical observation of A Severed Head in which Murdoch presents incest, marital absurdity and extramarital relationships within the structure of extremely intricate psychological, existential and Freudian views. The atrocities and incest are taken as common things in the western society and no one dares to reveal those uncommon things to the world. No one thinks about the future of those sufferers. But Murdoch has presented her positive views in her book A Severed Head and showed her courage to the literary world by taking a weird subject. This paper elucidates her views about repressive social rules, her philosophical knowledge, sentiments, humor and sudden twists in the story.

Keywords:
Freudian psychology, incest, adultery, severed head, social sentiments, morality.


References:

1.        Murdoch, Iris. A Severed Head. New York: Viking, 1961.
2.        Murdoch, Iris. The Black Prince. London, 1973.

3.        Murdoch, Iris. The Sacred and Profane Love Machine. New York: Viking, 1974.

4.        Murdoch, Iris. Under the Net. New York: Viking, 1954.

5.        Byatt, A. S. Degrees of Freedom: The Novels of Iris Murdoch. London: Chato and Windus, 1965.

6.        Byatt, A. S. Iris Murdoch: Writers and Their Works Series, No. 25, London: British Council Publication, 1976.

7.  Carson, Judith Ann. “Iris Murdoch: Her Philosophy in Two Novels” (1979). Open Access Dissertations and Theses Paper 5116, http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertations/5116.

8.        Conradi, Peter J. Iris Murdoch: The Saint and the Artist. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986.

9.        Conradi, Peter J. Iris Murdoch: A Life. Ondon: Harper Collins, 2001.

10.     Frankova Milada. Human Relationships in the Novels of Iris Murdoch. Brno: Masarykova Univerzita, 1995.

11.     Freud, Sigmund. The Origins of Religion: Totem and Taboo, Moses and Monotheism and Other Works. Trans. James Strachey. Ed. Albert Dickson. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.

12.     Kuehl, Linda. “Iris Murdoch: The Novelist as Magician/The Magician as Artist.” Modern Fiction Studies, XV (Autumn 1969), 340-360).

13.     Rabinovitz, Rubin. Iris Murdoch. Columbia Essays on Modern Writers. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968.


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5.

Authors:

M. V. S. Lakshmi, Ravi Mathey

Paper Title:

Encrypted Feature Extraction for Privacy SIFT

Abstract: Privacy has acquired considerable attention but is still largely ignored inside multimedia local community. Consider some sort of cloud research scenario the spot that the server can be resource-abundant, and is also capable regarding finishing the particular designated duties. It can be envisioned in which secure advertising applications using privacy preservation is going to be treated seriously. In view that the scale-invariant characteristic transform (SIFT) has become widely adopted in several fields, this project may be the first to the fact that privacy-preserving SORT (PPSIFT) and to address the condition of safeguarded SIFT characteristic extraction and also representation inside encrypted domain.

Keywords:
Feature Extraction, Privacy Preserving, Security.


References:

1.        G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),” in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.
2.        W. Lu, A. Swaminathan, A. L. Varna, and M. Wu, “Enabling search over encrypted multimedia databases,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7254, pp. 1–11, Jan. 2009.

3.        J. Shashank, P. Kowshik, K. Srinathan, and C. Jawahar, “Private content based image retrieval,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit., Jun. 2008, pp. 1–8.

4.        C. Y. Hsu, C. S. Lu, and S. C. Pei, “Homomorphic encryption-based secure sift for privacy-preserving feature extraction,” Proc. IS&T/SPIE Media Watermark., Forensics, Security, vol. 7880, pp. 788005-1– 788005-17, Jan. 2011.

5.        Z. Yang, S. Kamata, and A. Ahrary, “NIR: Content based image retrieval on cloud computing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Intell. Comput. Intell. Syst., vol. 3. Nov. 2009, pp. 556–559.

6.        B. Moskovich and M. Osadchy, “Illumination invariant representation for privacy preserving face identification,” in Proc. IEEE Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. Workshop, Jun. 2010, pp. 154–161.

7.        Z. Erkin, M. Franz, J. Guajardo, S. Katzenbeisser, I. Lagendijk, and T. Toft, “Privacy-preserving face recognition,” in Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Privacy Enhancing Technol., 2009, pp. 235–253.

8.        J. Krizaj, V. Struc, and N. Pavesic, “Adaptation of sift features for robust face recognition,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Image Anal. Recognit., 2010, pp. 394–404.

9.        A. Sadeghi, T. Schneider, and I. Wehrenberg, “Efficient privacypreserving face recognition,” in Proc. 12th Annu. Int. Conf. Inf. Security Cryptol., 2009, pp. 229–244.

10.     C. Velardo and J. L. Dugelay, “Face recognition with daisy descriptors,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia Security Workshop, 2010, pp. 95–100.

11.     U. Park, S. Pankanti, and A. K. Jain, “Fingerprint verification using sift features,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6944, pp. 69440K-1–69440K-9, Mar. 2008.

12.     Z. Ye, X. Chen, and Z. Li, “Video based mobile location search with large set of sift points in cloud,” in Proc. MCMC Workshop ACM Multimedia Conf., 2010, pp. 25–30.

13.     C. Y. Hsu, C. S. Lu, and S. C. Pei, “Secure and robust sift,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2009, pp. 637–640


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6.

Authors:

D. Elangovan, K. Nirmala

Paper Title:

Portrayal Based Concept Classification for Extracting ‘Operating System’ E- Content

Abstract: Portrayals (or cognitive structures) may be used as bases for classifying e-content documents of problem centric courses such as ‘Operating System’.  As concept extractions cannot be fully automated, this paper suggests a novel technique in the form of procedures for identifying portrayal based and domain dependent documents for selecting appropriate e-contents.[3] The paper has considered the ‘First Principles of Instruction’ (FPI) of David Merrill in the form of its four cognitive structures namely Activation, Demonstration, Application and Integration as portrayals. The paper suggests developing and storing of e-contents in the form of these portrayals explicitly. The paper points out clearly that it is quite possible to represent portrayal documents, which are tagged with the e-content documents for the subject ‘Operating System’. The proposed procedure has symbolized two portrayal concept words of ‘Activation’ and ‘Demonstration’ for Operating System.  Our proposed approach is based on literature support on concept mining that uses portrayals. Comparative studies through experiments on these two portrayals have been made with our suggested procedure and that of pure keyword searches of the same subject contents. The paper has validated its approach through 38 selective learner respondents who were requested to present concept based short sentences which are used for extraction of the tagged e-documents. It is proved that extraction is quick and easy, even when the e-documents did not have specified keywords. Conclusions that are drawn from the studies would be of use to e-content developers and concept extractors [1].

Keywords:
Concept extraction, Concept portrayals, Portrayal classifications, Operating Systems e-content.


References:

1.        Masaru Ohba, Katsuhiko Gondow: Toward mining "concept keywords" from identifiers in large software projects. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 30(4): 1-5 (2005)
2.        Saleema Amershi, and Cristina Conati “Combining Unsupervised and Supervised Classification to Build User Models for Exploratory Learning Environments”, Journal of Educational Data Mining, Article 2, Vol 1, No 1, Fall (2009)

3.        Merrill M.D., (2007). “Converting e sub3-learning to e 3rd power-learning: an alternative instructional design method”. In S. Carliner and P. Shank (Eds.), e-Learning: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead (Voices from Academe and Industry). Pfeiffer/Jossey-Bass.

4.        Suriakala M and Sambanthan T.G, (2007), “Merrill’s Taxonomy and Action Verbs for Information and Communication Technology Content Analysis”, International Journal for Vocational Education, National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research, Chennai, India, Vol.    No.   June 2007 pp

5.        Merrill M.D., (2002). “First Principles of Instruction”, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

6.        Arun K.Pujari, (2001), “Data mining techniques”, Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd. 2001


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7.

Authors:

Jasanpreet Singha, Narinder Kumarb, S. K. Mahlac

Paper Title:

Rice Bran Oil Biodiesel as an Alternative in Single Cylinder CI Engine with DI Ethyl Ether Blends

Abstract: The increased attention on alternative fuels in the recent years was mainly driven by increasing oil prices, strong emission norms and the concern on clean environment. The biodiesel has emerged as a potential substitute for diesel fuel on account of its renewable source and lesser emissions. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with rice bran oil and its blends (5%, 10% and 15%) with di ethyl ether at different load conditions. The results of the experimental investigation show that the RBO-DEE blend can be used efficiently in diesel engine without much change in the engine hardware. In performance characteristics the thermal efficiency increases by 11.6% at 10% DEE addition in the RBO at full load conditions and brake power also increases as oxygen addition improves the combustion process. In exhaust emission characteristics the unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions decreases with the increase in DEE percentage in the blend. A significant reduction in smoke emissions can be seen with RBO-DEE blend investigated.

Keywords:
Biodiesel, Rice Bran Oil, Transesterification, Di Ethyl Ether, Performance, Emissions.


References:

1.        Mustafa Balat and Havva Balat (24 March 2008). A critical review of bio-diesel as a vehicular fuel. Energy Conversion and Management, Page 2727–2741.
2.        P.K.Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, B.S.Panesar, and V.K.Thapar (April 2007). Parametric Studies on Bio-diesel prepared from Rice Bran Oil. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR E journal. Manuscript EE06 007, Vol. IX.

3.        Novy Srihartati Kasim, Tsung-Han Tsai, Setiyo Gunawan, Yi-Hsu Ju. (November 2008).Biodiesel production from rice bran oil and supercritical methanol. Bioresource Technology 100 Page 2399–2403.

4.        Fangrui Maa, Milford A. Hannab, 2 February 1999)Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresource Technology 70, Page 1-15.

5.        Ulf Schuchardta, Ricardo Serchelia, Rogério Matheus Vargas(1998)Transesterification of Vegetable Oils: a Review. J. Braz. Chem. Soc., Vol. 9, No. 1, Page 199-210.

6.        M.Mathiyazhagan, A.Ganapathi, B. Jaganath, N. Renganayaki, And N. Sasireka( April 2011)Production of biodiesel from non-edible plant oils having high FFA content.  International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 2, No.2.


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8.

Authors:

Abayomi Ibiyemi, Ezekiel Tella

Paper Title:

Critical Issues in Economic Risks Consideration by Commercial Property Investors and Valuers in Nigeria: The Case of Lagos

Abstract: Rationality in property investment valuation is predicated on a coherent valuation theory and practice, generally acceptable methodology framework, and explicitness in risks appraisal and rental growth rates. This study hypothesises that Lagos real estate firms do not account for economic risks explicitly in property investment valuation practice.  Many firms use the Payback Period, Residual, Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), and the conventional Risk Adjusted Discount Factor (RADF) that increases the discount rate implicitly, depending on the perceived volatility of the project relative to the risk-free rate of return.   A questionnaire survey, using stratified sampling, recently asked 110 valuation firms and 40 Commercial property investors in Lagos Metropolis about comprehensive economic risks techniques applications, and perception of risks respectively. The data provided verified the hypothesis. The results, based on chi-square goodness of fit test, indicated statistical differences between theory and observed proportions. The conclusion of the study is that investment valuations are not explicitly influenced by comprehensive risk considerations. The firms lack the understanding of the methods and procedures of the contemporary risk models, hence, it is difficult for them to apply.  Investors’ perception of risks is poor, so they are unable to query the Valuers’ valuation rationale.  The implication of the findings is that economic risks may be understated: Future investment performance measurements must be qualified on the platform of comprehensiveness of risks appraisal. The paper recommends that application of comprehensive models be made mandatory by the Real Estate Professional Body, with a reliable property data bank that complies with international valuation best practices. Commercial property investors should be encouraged to diversify, share, or spread their risks accordingly.

Keywords:
Risk analysis, market risks, perception, valuation rationality, best practices, appraisal, Nigeria.


References:

1.        Millington A.F. Accuracy and the role of the  valuer, Estate Gazette, 9th    November, (276): 603, 1985
2.        Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, The Mallinson Report, London 1995

3.        Bretten, J. and Wyatt, P. Variance in property valuations for commercial lending, Research Papers  4: 9, 2002.

4.        Babawale, G.K. Valuers’ liability for negligence. The Estate Surveyor and Valuer, 30 (1):49-56, 2007

5.        Crosby, Neil. Valuation accuracy, variation and bias in the context of standards and expectations. Journal of Property Investment and Finance Vol. 18, No. 2, 2000.

6.        Downs, A. Appraisal practices need revision. The Appraisal Journal, October, 454-458, 1991

7.        Baum, A and Crosby, N. Property investment appraisal,  Routledge, London, 1988

8.        Levy, D. and Schuck, E. The Influence of clients on valuations, Journal of Property Investment and Finance.  17: 4, 1999

9.        White, J.R. The real estate appraisers – The elusive goal of professionalism. The Appraisal Journal, July, 325-377, 1987

10.     Waldy, B Valuation accuracy, 6th FIG permanent committee meeting and international symposium, Singapore, 1997

11.     Ogunba, O. A. and Ajayi, C. A.  An assessment of the accuracy of valuations in the residential property market of Lagos. The Estate Surveyor and Valuer. 2 (2):19-22, 1998

12.     Ogunba, O.A. A study of Valuation and Pricing Practices in the Residential Propert Market in Lagos Metropolis. M.Sc Thesis submitted to The Department of Estate Management, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 1997

13.     Ogunba, O.A; Ajayi, C. A, and Aluko, B. T.  Substitution versus anticipation: A resolution of the Nigerian Valuation Practice Paradox. Journal of Land use and Development Studies, 1, (1), 1 – 10, 2005

14.     Igboko, N. P. Research project on Valuation Methods in Nigeria with special  reference to Years Purchase. Research report for the Nigeria Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, 1 – 43, 1992

15.     Ogunba, O.A; and Ajayi, C. A. A Critique of the Conduct of Valuation in Lagos Metropolis; Contemporary issues in Real Estate. Journal of the Department of Estate Management University of Lagos, 2000

16.     Investment Property Forum/IPD. The Assessment and Management of Risk in the Property Investment Industry, Investment Property Forum/Investment Property Databank, London. 34-47, 2000.

17.     Broadmap, Harry. Navigating the risks and opportunities in emerging markets: Pearls, Pitfalls, and Possibilities. Marketmap, Issue 1, 2011

18.     Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk. 2013

19.     Ajayi, C. A. Property investment and analysis.  Ibadan: De-Ayo Publications, 1998

20.     Baum, A and Mackmin, D. The income approach to property valuation, 3rd ed, Thompson, London, 1996

21.     Brueggeman, W.B.and Fisher, J.D. Real estate finance: Theory and practice. Cincinnati, South West publishing, 2001

22.     Baum, A. Risk-explicit appraisal: A sliced income approach. Journal of valuation, 5:250-270, 1987

23.     Baum, A. A critical examination of measurement of property investment risk. Working Paper No.22, University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, 1988

24.     Ogunba, O.A and Ojo, O. Resolving reliability, consistency and rationality problems of professionally prepared valuation in Nigerian practice. The Estate Surveyor and Valuer, 30 (1):39-48, 2007

25.     Mallinson, M. and French, N. Uncertainty in property valuation, Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 18 (1):13-32, 2000.

26.     Ibiyemi, A.O.  Valuation model for eco-compliance in the assessment of value-in-use for going concern industrial processes in Nigeria, The Estate Surveyor &Valuer,  27 (1): 5-24, 2004 

27.     Ibiyemi, A.O . Application of Property Valuation and Analysis to Green Buildings, Lagos Journal of Environmental Studies,  6 (1):47-54, 2007

28.     Baum, A and Crosby, N. Property investment appraisal, Routledge, London, 2nd edition, 1995

29.     Baum, A and Macgregor, B. The initial yield revealed: Explicit valuations and the future of property investments. Journal of Property Valuation and investment. 10 (4):709-726, 1992

30.     Ojo, O.  Reliability, consistency and rationality of professionally prepared valuations: Suggestions for resolving the problems in Nigerian, practice. CPD Training Workshop.  Organised by the NIESV in Lagos, Kaduna and Enugu, 2004

31.     Leramo, G. A. The Groundwork of property valuation. Kaduna Polytechnic Press, Kaduna, 1, 1 – 3, 1992.

32.     Olawoye, C. O.  Statutory Shaping of Land Law and Land Administration up to the  Land Use Act. In J. A. Omotola (eds). The land use Act. The Report of a National Workshop, Lagos University Press, 14 – 22, 1981.

33.     Umezurike, O. N. The land use Decree, 1978: A Critical Analysis. FAB Educational Books, Jos, Nigeria, 1989

34.     Bello, O. M. The Analysis and Valuation of Investment Property in the Context of the Land Use Act (No. 6 Of 1978) Of The Federal Republic of Nigeria. Land Management in Africa – BEST PAPER PRIZE awarded by African Real Estate Society and the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, United Kingdom, 2001

35.     Bello, O. M.  Real Estate Values, Valuation Practice and Urban Land Market under the Nigerian Land Law. African Region Castle Conference on Sustainable Land Management Conference on Sustainable Land Management in Africa, 14 – 17 March, Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 329 – 340, 2006.

36.     Greaves, M.  The investment method of valuation and analysis: An examination of some of its problems. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading, 1972

37.     Marshall, A. Equated yield analysis. Estate Gazette,    9th  November, (276): 603, 1976

38.     Wood, E. Property investment: A real value approach. Ph.D.Thesis, University of Reading, 1972

39.     Sykes, S.  Property valuation: A rational model. The Investment Analyst. .61:20-26, 1981

40.     Crosby, Neil.  The investment method of valuation: A real value approach, Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, Vol. 1 Iss: 4, pp.341 – 350, 1983

41.     Matysiak, G.A and Wang, P.  Commercial property market prices and valuations: analysing the correspondence, Journal of Property Research, 12(3): 181-202, 1995

42.     Adair, A.S, Hutschinson, N.E., Macgregor, BD, McGreal, S, Nanthakumaran, N.(1996). An analysis of valuation variation in the UK commercial property market, Journal of Valuation and Investment, 14 (5):34-47

43.     Carsberg Report. Property valuation, Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London, 2002.

44.     Hutschinson, N., Adair, N. and Leheny, I. Property risk scoring: The report of investment risks to clients. RICS Research Paper Series, 7:1, 2007

45.     Dugeri, T.M. Valuation of the Nigerian maturity of the property market. PhD Thesis submitted to the Department of Estate Management, University of Lagos, Nigeria, 2011.

46.     Falade, J.B.  Globalisation, culture and the Nigerian Built Environment: problem, Challenges, and Benefits. Paper delivered at the Conference on Globalisation, Culture, and the Nigerian Built Environment, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 2005

47.     Babawale, G.K. & Koleoso, H. Real Estate Valuation Practice in Nigeria: Implication in a Globalization World”, Paper Presented at the International Conference on the Built Environment: Innovation, Policy, and Sustainable Development, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, 2006

48.     Markowitz. Harry. Efficient diversification of investments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York Chapman & Hall, Limited, London 1959.

49.     Crystalake. http://crystalake.wordpress.com/2010/12/25/property-investment-in-Singapore, 2010

50.     Lin, Zhenguo and Liu, Yingehun.  Real estate returns and risks with heterogeneous investors.
http://google.inklineglobal.com/google_rom_search_results.html?q=What+are+the+effects+of+overstating+or+understating+property+
51. investment+risks&cx=partner-pub-6697027465779297%3A3144322079&cof=FORID%3A10&ie=UTF-8&sa=Search&siteurl=http%3A%2F%2Fgoogle.inklineglobal.com%2F%3FMB, 2013

52.     Gilbert, Gary D . Alternative Investment: What they are. Investment and Invsting Articles, Profures Inc, Austin, Texas, 2013

53.     Ogunba, O.A; and Ajayi, C. A. The response of Nigerian valuers to increasing sophistication in investors’ requirements. Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 25, (1), 43-61, 2007

54.     Bello, M.O and Bello, V.O.  Strategic Integration of Surveying Services, FIG Working  Week 2007, Hong Kong SAR, China 13-17 May 2007


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9.

Authors:

Anjali Ganesh Jivani

Paper Title:

An Insight into Concurrency Control Protocols of Distributed Databases

Abstract: This paper reviews the working of different concurrency control protocols in Distributed Databases. As the development and maturity of the popular centralized database system moves towards the distributed approach, the challenges and roles start becoming more complex and complicated. The discussion revolves around the variety of protocols, their working, their advantages and their disadvantages in a distributed environment. The paper is a comparative between the methods that are popular and accepted.

Keywords:
Concurrency Control, Distributed Database, Fragmentation, Replication.


References:

1.        Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan , “Database system concepts”, 5th Edition, Mc-graw Hill 2008.
2.        Ricardo, Catherine, “Database Systems: Principles, Design and Implementation”, 1990, MacMillan Publishers, New York. 

3.        K.  Sugihara, “Concurrency Control Based on Distributed Cycle Detection”, In Proceedings of International Conference on Data Engineering, 1987,pp. 267-274. 

4.        Mandeep Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, “Concurrency Control in Distributed Database System”, In Proceedings of International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2013.

5.        T.F.  Keefe, W.T.  Tsai, J.  Srivastava, “Database Concurrency Control In Multilevel Secure Database Management Systems”, IEEE Transaction on knowledge and Data Engineering, 1993, 5 (6) 1039-1055.

6.        Ray, L.  V.  Mancini,  S.  Jajodia  and  E. Bertino, ASEP:  A  Secure  and  Flexible Commit  Protocol  for  MLS  Distributed  Database Systems”, 2000,  IEEE  Transactions  on  Knowledge  and Data Engineering, 12(6): 880 – 899.

7.        S. Mehrotra, R. Rastogi, Y. Breitbart, H. F. Korth, and A.  Silberschatz, “The  Concurrency Control Problem in Multidatabases: Characteristics and  Solutions”,  ACM  SIGMOD  International Conference  on  Management  of  Data,  San  Diego, California, June 2-5, 1992, pp: 288-297.


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10.

Authors:

G. Manoharan, K. Nirmala

Paper Title:

Process Harmonization of Objects for Learning Grid Computing Environment

Abstract: Advancements in computing and internet technologies have made it possible to share data storage and data transfer resources, and computing power that are distributed across the world in networks. This opportunity has led to the development of a distributed computing environment called ‘Grid computing’ or ‘Grid’. Research publications are aplenty on methodologies and approaches for sharing such resources in Grids.  Massive creation added with reduced cost has made rich education contents to explore avenues such as Education Grids or Education Cloud Computing. However, issues such as heterogeneity and task scheduling with respect to load balancing have become complex research problems that need to be addressed. Educational e-contents are highly heterogeneous in regard to processing sizes. Therefore uniform load balancing on e-Learning jobs in Grids may not be completely achievable. However, it is found from literature that load harmonization with respect to variety of computing resources have been tried out. Instructional modules in e-Learning environments are generally available in independent entities called ‘Objects’ of different volumes and computational intensities that use different variety of computing resources. This paper presents parametric representations of user requests, for Harmonizing Learning Objects in Grid Computing Environment. These parametric representations would be useful for effective Grid scheduling that applies semantics and also for modeling semantic grid.

Keywords:
Technology Enhanced Learning, Education Grids, Virtual Organization, Semantic representation.


References:

1.        Wiki http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic web (2012)
2.        Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Jeffrey M. Nick and Steven Tuecke, “The Physiology of the Grid – An Open Grid Services  Architecture for Distributed Systems Integration”, University of Chicago, USA, http://www.globus.org/research/papers/ogsa.pdf.2002

3.        Md. Anwar Hossain Masud and Xiaodi Huang, “An E- Learning System Architecture based on Cloud Computing”, World   Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2012, pp 123 – 127.

4.        Kokilavani T,and  Dr. George Amalarethinam D. I , “Applying Non-Traditional Optimization Techniques to Task Scheduling In   Grid Computing – An Overview”, International Journal of Resrach and Reviews in Computer Sciences, IJRRCS, Vol. 1, No. 4,    Dec. 2011, pp 33 - 38.

5.        Berners – Lee Tim, Hendler, J and Lassila, O, “The Semantic Web”, Scientific American, USA, 2001.

6.        Matteo Gaita, Pierluigi and Domenico Talia, “Grid- Enabled Virtual Organizations for Next-Generation Learning Environments”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Vol. 41. No. 4, July 2011pp 784-797

7.        Merrill M.D., (2007).  “Converting e sub3-learning to e 3rd power-learning: an alternative instructional design method”. In S. Carliner and P. Shank (Eds.), e-Learning: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead (Voices from Academe and Industry). Pfeiffer/Jossey-Bass. Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, 2007, New York, USA edited by J. Michael Spector.

8.        Nicola CAPUANO, Matteo GAETA, Pierluigi RITROVATO CAMPA, “The Anatomy of the earning   Grid”, Ed. CRMPA, Centro di Ricerea in Matematics, Pura ed Applicate, Italy, 2008.

9.        Grid Way System Administrator’s Guide – Globus, www.globus.org/toolkit/docs/4.2/4.2.1/execution/gridway/gridway.pdf   2009

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11.

Authors:

Kriti, Jatinder Singh, Vivek Pahwa

Paper Title:

Dynamic and Steady State Analysis of Induction Machine

Abstract: In this paper, a model composed of fifth order differential equations of three-phase squirrel cage induction motor using two axis-theories in synchronously rotating reference frame, for dynamic/transient analysis is developed. The analysis has been extended to study the behaviour of three-phase induction machine during load changes and with different MOI’s. The proposed model is implemented using well established and globally accepted software tool i.e matlab/simulink. Further, the transfer function of three-phase induction machine under consideration is developed for stability analysis. On the basis of analysis a specific recommendation has been given.  

Keywords:
Modeling, moment of inertia, (MOI), simulation, stability, three-phase induction machine.


References:

1.        Pillay, R. J. Lee. and Harley, R. G. “DQ Reference Frames for the Simulation of     Induction Motors”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol.8 pp.15- 26, 1984.
2.        Sandhu, K. S. , Pahwa, Vivek “Simulation Study Of Three-Phase Induction Motor With Variations In Moment Of Inertia” , ARPN  Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 4, no. 6, August 2009.

3.        Macdonald, Murray L. and Sen, Paresh C. “Control Loop Study of Induction Motor Drives using DQ Model”, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, vol. IECI-26, no 4,pp. 237-243, November 1979.

4.        A .Alexandrovitz, S. Lechtman “Dynamic Behavior Of Induction Motor Based On Transfer Function Approach”,IEEE 17th Convention on Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp.328-333 March 1991.

5.        S.I.Moonand  A.  Keyhani. 1994. Estimation of Induction Machine Parameters from Standstill Time-Domain Data. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 30(6):1609-1615.

6.        Bose, Bimal K. “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives”, Prentice Hall, February 2002

7.        Omer M.Awed Badeeb “Investigation Of The Dynamic Performance Of Hysteresis Motors Using Matlab/Simulink” JEE  vol 56, pp-106-109 March 2005.

8.        Papathanassiou, S.A.  and M. P. Papadopoulos, “State-Space Modelling and Eigenvalue Analysis of the Slip Energy Recovery Drive”, IEE Proc. on Electrical Power Applications, vol. 144, no. I,pp. 27-36, January 1997.

9.        Krause, P.C. “Analysis of Electric Machinery,” IEEE Press New Jersy 1986.

10.     Krishnan, R. “Electric Motor Drives,” Pearson Prantice Hall, 2007.

11.     Chee-Mun Ong “Dynamic simulation of electric machinery using matlab/simulink”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,1998.

12.     Nelson, R. H., Lipo, A.T. and Krause, P.C. “Stability Analysis of a Symmetrical Induction Machine”, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-88, no. 11,pp. 1710-1717, November 1969.

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12.

Authors:

Amogh Waghmare, Sheldon Fernandes, Adesh Shetty, Shraddha Thakkar, Sharad Venkataraman

Paper Title:

Radio Detection of Meteor using Forward Scattering

Abstract: In the current scenario, it is a common practice at an amateur level to observe meteor showers through our naked eye. But many obstacles have been encountered while observing the meteor showers; such as bad weather and light conditions. In this paper, a cost-efficient method has been proposed to observe and analyze characteristics of meteor shower, based on the 'forward scattering principle’. The proposed model has been tested and results have been presented in the paper.

Keywords:
Data Logger, Forward Scattering, Meteor, Meteor Burst Communication, Meteor Shower, Yagi Uda Antenna, Zenithal hour rate.


References:

1.        Kanefsky, Bob, Nadine G. Barlow, and Virginia C. Gulick. "Can distributed volunteers accomplish massive data analysis tasks?" Lunar and Planetary Science 1 (2001). Available:
2.        McKinley D.W.R., ``Meteor science and engineering,'' McGraw-Hill, 1961.

3.        Fukuda, Akira, et al. "Experiments on meteor burst communications in the Antarctic." Adv. Polar Upper Atmos. Res 17 (2003): 120-136.


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13.

Authors:

Ashok Kumar Arroju, G. V. S. S. N.Sarma, Himani

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Three-Phase Three-Leg AC/AC Converter using SPWM and SVPWM

Abstract: This paper proposes a three-phase nine switch ac/ac converter topology. This converter features  sinusoidal  inputs  and  outputs,  unity  input  power  factor,  and  more  importantly, low manufacturing cost due to its reduced number of active switches. A suitable pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is employed to obtain the required output voltage. The different methods for PWM generation can be broadly classified into Triangle comparison based PWM (TCPWM) and Space Vector based PWM (SVPWM). In TCPWM methods such as sine-triangle PWM, three phase reference modulating signals are compared against a common triangular carrier to generate the PWM signals for the three phases. In SVPWM methods, a revolving reference voltage vector is provided as voltage reference instead of three phase modulating waves. The magnitude and frequency of the fundamental component in the line side are controlled by the magnitude and frequency, respectively, of the reference vector. The highest possible peak phase fundamental is very less in sine triangle PWM when compared with space vector PWM. Space Vector Modulation (SVM) Technique has become the important PWM technique for three phase AC-AC converters for the control of AC Induction, Brushless DC, Switched Reluctance and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors. The study of space vector modulation technique reveals that space vector modulation technique utilizes DC bus voltage more efficiently and generates less harmonic distortion when compared with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique. In this paper first a model for Space vector PWM is made and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and its performance is compared with Sinusoidal PWM. The simulation study reveals that Space vector PWM utilizes dc bus voltage more effectively and generates less THD when compared with sine PWM.

Keywords:
AC/AC converter,   pulse width    modulation (PWM), reduced switch count topology.


References:

1.        B.  Wu, High-power Converters and AC Drives. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE/Wiley, 2006.
2.        B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A.  Pandey, and D.  P. Kothari, “A review of three-phase improved  power  quality AC– DC converters,”  IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 641–660, Jun. 2004.

3.        F. Blaabjerg, S. Freysson, H. H. Hansen, and S.  Hansen,  “A new optimized  space-vector modulation strategy for a  component-minimized voltage source inverter,”  IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 704–714, Jul. 1997.

4.        R. L. A. Ribeiro, C. B. Jacobina, E. R. C. da Silva, and A. M. N. Lima, “AC/AC converter with four switch three phase structures,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 134–139.

5.        K. Gi-Taek and T. A. Lipo, “VSI-PWM rectifier/inverter system with areduced switch count,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1331–1337, Nov./Dec. 1996.

6.        A. Bouscayrol, B. Francois, P. Delarue, and J. Niiranen, “Control imple- mentation of a five-leg AC–AC converter to supply a three-phase induction machine,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 107–115, Jan.2005.

7.        C. B. Jacobina, I. S. de Freitas, E. R. C. da Silva, A. M. N. Lima, and R. L. A. Ribeiro, “Reduced switch count DC-link AC–AC five-leg con- verter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1301–1310, Sep.2006.

8.        C. B. Jacobina, I. S. de Freitas, and A. M. N. Lima, “DC-link three-phase- to-three-phase four-leg converters,”  IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1953–1961, Aug. 2007.

9.        J. Minibock and J. W. Kolar, “Novel concept for mains voltage propor- tional input current shaping of a VIENNA rectifier eliminating controller multipliers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 162–170, Feb.2005.

10.     T. Nussbaumer, M. Baumann, and J. W. Kolar, “Comprehensive design of a three-phase three-switch buck-type PWM rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 551–562, Mar. 2007.

11.     F. A. B. Batista and I. Barbi, “Space vector modulation applied to three- phase three-switch two-level unidirectional PWM rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2245–2252, Nov. 2007.

12.     P.  W.  Wheeler, J.  Rodriguez,  J.  C.  Clare, L.   Empringham, and A. Weinstein, “Matrix converters: A technology review,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 276–288, Apr. 2002.

13.     L. Wei, T. A. Lipo, and H. Chan, “Matrix converter topologies with reduced number of switches,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 57–63.

14.     J. W. Kolar, F. Schafmeister, S. D. Round, and H. Ertl, “Novel three-phase AC–AC sparse matrix converters,”  IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1649–1661, Sep. 2007.

15.     A. M. Hava, R. J. Kerkman, and T. A. Lipo, “Simple  analytical and graphical methods for carrier-based  PWM–VSI drives,”   IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 49–61, Jan. 1999.

16.     F. Blaabjerg, U. Jaeger, and S. Munk-Nielsen, “Power losses in PWM–VSI inverter using NPT or PT IGBT devices,”  IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 358–367, May 1995.

17.     Infineon Technologies, Application Note  ANIP9931E—Calculation of Major  IGBT Operating Parameters. Germany: Infineon Technologies,


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14.

Authors:

Ibraheem Idrees, Yassir Mohammad

Paper Title:

Charger for Lead-Acid Batteries

Abstract: In this paper some important charging method for rechargeable batteries and its charging circuits are introduced. A smart battery charger circuit of about (225 watt) based on a dc/dc half-bridge converter is presented, designed and analyzed  in this research. This charger is able to control the values of the load voltage and current and then, maintain them at a desirable value. A first converter is used to convert the grid 50 Hz electrical quantities into dc quantities. A second converter adjusts the levels to the values required by the battery and moreover, provides a galvanic isolation. MATLAB/Simulink program is used to simulate the presented charging circuit, and model of lead-acid battery is used to simulate the battery performance. The main results which obtained from applying the constant voltage method, constant current constant voltage method, and modified constant current constant voltage method are highlighted and investigated.

Keywords:
Rechargeable batteries, charger, Battery Charging Method, Matlab simulation.


References:

1.        Ying-Chun Chuang " High-Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for Rechargeable Batteries " IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57,No.7,pp. 2463- 2472,July 2010
2.        Ying-Chun Chuang, Yu-Lung Ke, Hung-Shiang Chuang and Yu-Min Chen ''Analysis and Implementation of Half-Bridge Series–Parallel Resonant Converter for Battery Chargers" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 47,No.1, pp. 258-270, Jan.-Feb. 2011.

3.        David Linden and Thomas B. Reddy"HANDBOOK OF BATTERIES" The McGraw-Hill Companies, Third Edition, Inc, 2002.


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15.

Authors:

Hemalatha R, Poorvi K. C, Dharmalingam M

Paper Title:

Tactile Sensation Imaging Technique for Embedded Lesion Detection

Abstract: In this paper we proposed tactile sensation imaging technique with supple waveguide and total internal reflection principle. The technique can also be used to detect and identify enclosures within tissues. In order to examine the performance of the proposed sensor, a realistic tissue vision with inclusions are integrated to emulate the tumors models. The proposed tactile imaging sensor can be implemented within inclusion diameter of 4.09% and the inclusion depth within 7.55%. From the planned characterization method the size, depth, and Young’s modulus values are calculated using FEM and LMA algorithm.

Keywords:
Tactile sensation imaging, Inclusion, FEM, LMA, Total internal Reflection.


References:

1.        Jong-Ha Lee and Chang-Hee Won., Tactile Sensation Imaging System of IEEE transaction Journal of Bioimedical and Helath informatics,March(2013)
2.        Sojaku, H., Seto, H., Iwai, H., Kitazawa, S., Fukushima, W., Saito, K.: Detection of Incidental Breast Tumors by Noncontrast Spiral Computed Tomography of the Chest. Radiat. Med. 3, 780-782 (2008)

3.        Gentle, C.R.:  Mammobarography: A Possible Method of Mass Breast Screening.  J.Biomech. Eng. 10, 124-126 (1998)

4.        Wellman, P.S., Dalton, E.P., Krag,  D., Kern,  K.A., Howe, R.D.:  Tactile Imaging  of Breast Masses.  Arch.  Sur. 136, 204-208 (2001)

5.        Howe, R.D., Matsuoka, Y.:  Robotics for Surgery.  Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering. 1, 211-240 (1999)

6.        Krouskop, T.A.,  Wheeler,  T.B.,  Kallel,  F.,  Garra, B.S., Hall,  T.:  Elastic  Moduli  of Breast and  Prostate Tissues under  Compression. Ultrason.Imaging. 20, 260-274 (1998)

7.        Chang-Yen, D.A., Eich, R.K., Gale, B.K.: A Monolithic PDMS Waveguide SystemFabricated using Soft-lithography Techniques. J. Light. Tech. 23, 2088-2093 (2005)

8.        Kandel, E.,  Schwartz, J.,  Jessell,  T.:  Principles of Neural Science.  McGraw-Hill  Medical  (2000)


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16.

Authors:

Abhijit A. Patil, Uday C. Kapale , P. B. Gangawati

Paper Title:

Augmentation of Heat Transfer in Laminar Flow Using Full Length Aluminum Twisted Tape

Abstract: Low fluid velocity results in small overall heat transfer coefficient as the rate of heat transfer mainly depends upon the movement of molecules of fluids. Towards the goal of improved thermal management heat transfer augmentation is a subject of vital importance in increasing the heat transfer rate and achieving higher efficiency. The need to increase the thermal performance of heat based equipment like ovens, furnaces, and heat exchangers, thereby effecting energy, material, and cost savings as well as a consequential mitigation of environmental degradation had led to the development and use of many heat transfer enhancement techniques. Sixteen different enhancement techniques have been identified by A.E. Bergles [1], which can be classified broadly as passive and active techniques. Primarily, heat transfer augmentation methods are classified in three broad categories as Active method, Passive method and Compound method. The effectiveness of any of these methods is strongly dependent on the mode of heat transfer (single-phase free or forced convection, pool boiling, forced convection boiling or condensation, and convective mass transfer), and type and process application of the heat exchanger. Several options are available for enhancing heat transfer associated with internal flows. Enhancement may be achieved by increasing the convection coefficient and/or by increasing the convection surface area. The wire inserts or says tape provides a helical roughness element in contact with the tube inner surface. Alternatively the convection coefficient may be increased by inducing the swirl through insertion of a twisted tape. The inserts consist of a thin strip that is periodically twisted through 360 degrees. Tape inserts are inexpensive and can be easily employed to improve the thermal performance of existing system. Introduction of a tangential velocity component increases the speed of the flow, particularly near the tube wall. By coiling the tube the heat transfer may be enhanced without turbulence or additional heat transfer surface area.    In this experimental project a continuous twisted insert of Aluminium material is used to study the effect of insert on different parameters like Overall heat transfer coefficient, Reynolds Number, Effectiveness, and the Temperature Variation etc. This paper gives revising the use of such techniques by using twisted aluminum tape to understand the enhancement in rate of heat transfer for pipe flow. Numbers of cases are studied by using heat exchanger with and without inserts, changing the condition of flow as parallel and counter flow and also by changing the path of hot fluid

Keywords:
Active techniques. Primarily, heat transfer augmentation methods, Overall heat transfer coefficient, Reynolds Number, Effectiveness, and the Temperature Variation.


References:

1.        W.J. Marner and A.E. Bergles,‘Augmentation of highly viscous laminar heat transfer inside tubes with constant wall temperature’, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science,Volume 2, Issue 3, July 1989, Pages 252–267,Heat Transfer Research, Inc., Alhambra, California, USA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.
2.        J.P. Du Plessis and D.G. Kröger, ‘Heat transfer correlation for thermally developing laminar flow in a smooth tube with a twisted-tape insert’, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 1987, Pages 509–515Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa and Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

3.        WatcharinNoothong, Smith Eiamsa-ard and PongjetPromvonge, ‘Effect of Twisted-tape Inserts on Heat Transfer in a tube’, The 2nd Joint International Conference on “ Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”,21-23 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand.

4.        P.K. Nagrajan and P. Sivashanmugam, ‘heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer’, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 58 2011.

5.        V. N. Kapatkar, A. S. Padalkar and Sanjay Kasbe, ‘Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer  Enhancement in Laminar Flow in Circular Tube Equipped with Different Inserts’, Proc. Of Int. Con. On Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2010, AMAE

6.        Siva Rama Krishna, GovardhanPathipaka, P. Sivashanmugam ‘Heat transfer and pressure drop studies in a circular tube fitted with straight full twist’,Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu 620 015, India.

7.        M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi,  Ravi Kumar , M.R. Salimpour and  R. Azimi, ‘Pressure drop and heat transfer augmentation due to coiled wire inserts during laminar flow of oil inside a horizontal tube’, International Journal Thermal Sciences,Volume 49, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 373–379

8.        S. Naga Sarda, A.V. Sita Rama Raju, K. KalyaniRadha and Shyam Sunder, ‘Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts’, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 107-118.

9.        S.K. Saha, A. Dutta and S.K. Dhal ‘Friction and heat transfer characteristics of laminar swirl flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced twisted-tape elements’ dept. of mech. Engg. , Daltech, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova, Scotia B3J 2X4, Canada, received in revised form 16 February 2001

10.     Incropera, Dewitt, Bergmann, Lavine, ‘Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer’, Willy India Edition, p.p.505 to 524.

11.     Yunus A. CENGAL & Afshin J. Ghajar, Heat and mass transfer fundamental and application, McGraw Hill Publications.

12.     J. P. Holman Heat and mass transfer, McGraw Hill Publications.

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17.

Authors:

Hajar Zare Bahramabadi, Hamidreza Dalili Oskouei, Asghar Ebrahimi

Paper Title:

Design Low Power Full-Adders for Arithmetic Applications

Abstract: This paper presents low power CMOS full adder cells. The full adder cells are utilization to low power by using XOR and XNOR gate architectures with pass transistor logic and transmission gate. All simulation results have been carried out by using HSPICE program simulator based on 22 nm CMOS technology at 1.2 V supply voltages. The operating frequency is 250 MHz. In comparison with other 1 bit adder cells, simulation results show that have used low power consumption and power delay product of SUM and COUT.

Keywords:
A CMOS full adder, XNOR-XOR gate, low power full adder.


References:

1.        N. H. E. Weste and D. Harris, "CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuit and Systems Perspective," Third Edition," Addison Wesley, 2005.
2.        AP. Chandrakasan, S.Sheng, and R.W.Brodersen, Low-Power CMOS digital design," IEEE 1. Solid-State Circuit, vol. 27, pp. 473-483, Apr. 1992.

3.        1.B Kuo and 1.-H. Lou, "Low-Voltage CMOS VLSI Circuit," John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1999.

4.        S.M. kang, and L.Yusuf, "CMOS Digital integrated circuit Analysis and Design," McGraw-Hili, 1999.

5.        M. Zhang, 1. Gu, and C. H. Chang, "A novel hybrid pass logic with static CMOS output drive full-adder cell," Proc. 36th IEEE Int Symp. Circuits and Systems, vol. Y, Bangkok, Thailand, May 2003, pp. 317-320.

6.        C. K. Tung, Y. C. Hung, S. H. Shieh, and G. S. Huang, "A Low- Power High-Speed Hybrid CMOS Full Adder for Embedded System," Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems IEEE, April 2007, Page(s): 1-4.

7.        1. F. Jiang, Z. G. Mao, W. F. He, Q. Wang, "A new full adder design for tree structured arithmetic circuits," Proc. 2nd Int Conf on (ICCET 2010), voL4, pp.Y4-246-V4-249, 16-18 April, 2010.


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18.

Authors:

Milad Razmi, Ali Rafiee,  Zoheir Kordrostami

Paper Title:

Noise Reduction of Hyperspectral Imagery Nonlocal Sparse Representation

Abstract: Noise reduction is always an active research area in image processing due to its importance for the sequential tasks such as object classification and detection. In this paper, we develop a sparse representation based noise reduction method for hyperspectral imagery, which is dependent on the ssumption that the non-noise component in the signal can be approximated by only a small number of atoms in a dictionary while noise component has not this property. The main contribution of the paper is in introducing nonlocal similarity and spectralspatial structure of hyperspectral imagery into sparse representation. Non-locality means the self-similarity of image, by which the whole image can be partitioned into some groups containing similar patches. The similar patches in each group is sparsely represented with shared atoms making the signal and noise more easily separated. Sparse representation with spectral-spatial structure can exploit spectral and spatial joint correlations of hyperspectral imagery also making the signal and noise more distinguished, in which 3-D blocks are instead of 2-D patches for sparse coding. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method has a good quality of restoring the true signal from the noisy observation.

Keywords:
Hyperspectral imagery, noise reduction, sparse representation, nonlocal similarity, spectral-spatial structure.


References:

1.        N. Renard, S. Bourennane, and J. Blanc-Talon, "Denoising and dimensionality reduction using multilinear tools for hyperspectral images," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 138-142, 2008.
2.        G. Chen and S. Qian, "Denoising and dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral imagery using wavelet packets, neighbour shrinking and principal component analysis," International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 30, no. 18, pp.4889-4895,2009.

3.        J. Mairal, M. Elad, and G. Sapiro, "Sparse representation for color image restoration," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 17, no. I, pp. 53-69, 2008.

4.        A. Buades, B. Coli, and J. M. Morel, "A review of image denoising algorithms, with a new one," Multisc. Model. Simulat., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 490-530, 2005.

5.        J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, G. Sapiro, and A. Zisserman, "Non-local sparse models for image restoration," in IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, 2009, pp.2272-2279.

6.        S. Bourguignon, D. Mary, and E. Slezak, "Sparsity-based denoising of hyperspectral astrophysical data with colored noise: Application to the muse instrument," in 2nd Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS), 2010.

7.        J. F. Frey and D. Dueck, "Clustering by passing messages between data points," Science, vol. 315, pp. 972-976, 2007.

8.        J. Liu, S. Ji, and J. Ye, "Multi-task feature learning via efficient l2,1-norm minimization," in Uncertainty in A rtificiallntelligence (UAl), 2009.

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19.

Authors:

Majid Fereidoon, Majid Najimi, Gholamreza Khorasani

Paper Title:

Simulation of Hydropower Systems Operation using Artificial Neural Network

Abstract: This paper presents a simulation model for hydropower systems. Reliability-Based Simulation (RBS) model is a common tip for simulation of Hydropower systems. This method is based on determination of power generation capacity using iteration process mentioned initial firm energy. Also, in this method energy equation is implicit and solving it requires the iteration process too. This method is time consuming especially in multi-reservoir systems. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) the desired parameter such as releases from reservoir can be obtained more quickly.

Keywords:
RBS model, Hydropower systems, Artificial Neural Network.


References:

1.        Archer, R., Zakeri, G., Auckland, , U., Vaudrey, T., 2005. Splines as an Optimization Tool Optimization Tool Petroleum Engineering. SPE 95601. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 9–12 October, Dallas, Texas. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
2.        Bower, L., Hufschmidt, M. M., and reedy, W. H. (1962). “Operating procedures: their role in the design and implementation of water water reaources systems bby simulation analysis.’ Design of water resource systems, A. Mass et al., eds., Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 443- 458.

3.        Clark, E. J. (1950). “New York control curves.” J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 42(9), 823- 827.

4.        Clark, E. J. (1956). “Impounding reservoirs.” J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 48(4), 349- 354.

5.        Loucks, D. P., and Sigvaldason, O. T. (1982). “ Multiple- reservoir operation in North America.” In the operation of multiple reservoir systems, proc. ІІASA Collaborative Proc. Ser. CP-82-53, Z. Kaczmarek and J. Kindler, eds., International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 1-103.

6.        Lund, J., and Guzman, J. (1999). “derived operating rules for reservoirs in series or in parallel.” J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage., 125(3), 143- 153.

7.        Tu, M. Y., Hsu, N. S., and Yeh, W. W. G. (2003). “Optimization of reservoir management and operation with hedging rules.” J. water resour. Plann. Manage.,129(2), 86-97.

8.        Pan, Y., Horne, R.N., 1998. Improved methods for multivariate optimization of field development scheduling and well placement design. SPE 49055.SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 27–30 September, New Orleans, Louisiana.

9.        Yeten, B., Durlofsky, L.J., Aziz, K., 2002. Optimization of  on-conventional Well Type, Location and Trajectory. SPE 77565. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 29 September–2 October, San Antonio, Texas.


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20.

Authors:

Milad Razmi, Ali Rafiee, Zoheir Kordrostami

Paper Title:

Noise Reduction in Hyperspectral Images Through Spectral Unmixing

Abstract: Spectral unmixing and denoising of hyperspectral images have always been regarded as separate problems. By considering the physical properties of a mixed spectrum, this letter introduces unmixing-based denoising, a supervised methodology representing any pixel as a linear combination of reference spectra in a hyperspectral scene. Such spectra are related to some classes of interest, and exhibit negligible noise influences, as  hey are averaged over areas for which ground truth is available. After the unmixing process, the residual vector is mostly composed by the contributions of uninteresting materials, unwanted atmospheric influences and sensor-induced noise, and is thus ignored in the reconstruction of each spectrum. The proposed method, in spite of its simplicity, is able to remove noise effectively for spectral bands with both low and high signal-to-noise ratio. Experiments show that this method could be used to retrieve spectral information from corrupted bands, such as the ones placed at the edge between ultraviolet and visible light frequencies, which are usually discarded in practical applications. The proposed method achieves better results in terms of visual quality in comparison to competitors, if the mean squared error is kept constant. This leads to questioning the validity of mean squared error as a predictor for image quality in remote sensing applications.

Keywords:
Denoising, hyperspectral images, image restoration, mean squared error, spectral unmixing.


References:

1.        C. Bruce, “Hyspiri mission concept overview and recent ICE and TRL activities,” in Proc. HyspIRI Sci. Workshop, Oct. 2012.
2.        B. Aiazzi, L. Alparone, A. Barducci, S. Baronti, P. Marcoionni, I. Pippi, and M. Selva, “Noise modelling and estimation of hyperspectral data from airborne imaging spectrometers,” Ann. Geophys., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2006.

3.        T. Kutser, D. C. Pierson, K. Y. Kallio, A. Reinart, and S. Sobek, “Mapping lake CDOM by satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 535–540, 2005.

4.        S. C. Johannessen, W. L. Miller, and J. J. Cullen, “Calculation of UV attenuation and colored dissolved organic matter absorption spectra from measurements of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res., vol. 108, no. C9, pp. 1701–1713, 2003.

5.        R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Aug. 2007.

6.        N. Renard, S. Bourennane, and J. Blanc-Talon, “Denoising and dimensionality reduction using multilinear tools for hyperspectral images,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 138–142, Apr. 2008.

7.        G. Chen and S.-E. Qian, “Denoising of hyperspectral imagery using principal component analysis and wavelet shrinkage,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 973–980, Mar. 2011.

8.        A. A. Green, M. Berman, P. Switzer, and M. D. Craig, “A transformation for ordering multispectral data in terms of image quality with implications for noise removal,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 65–74, Jan. 1988.

9.        U. Amato, R. M. Cavalli, A  Palombo, S. Pignatti, and F. Santini, “Experimental approach to the selection of the components in the minimum noise fraction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 153–160, Jan. 2009.

10.     M. Farzam and S. Beheshti, “Simultaneous denoising and intrinsic order selection in hyperspectral imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 3423–3436, Sep. 2011.

11.     Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 600–612, Apr. 2004.

12.     J. M. P. Nascimento and J. M. Bioucas Dias, “Does independent component analysis play a role in unmixing hyperspectral data?” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 175–187, Jan. 2005.

13.     J. M. Bioucas-Dias, A. Plaza, N. Dobigeon, M. Parente, Q. Du, P. Gader, and J. Chanussot, “Hyperspectral unmixing overview: Geometrical,  statistical, and sparse regression-based approaches,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 354–379, Apr. 2012.

14.     D. Cerra, R. Mueller, and P. Reinartz, “A classification algorithm for hyperspectral images based on synergetics theory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., to be published.

15.     I. Dopido, M. Zortea, A. Villa, A. Plaza, and P. Gamba, “Unmixing prior to supervised classification of remotely sensed hyperspectral images,” IEEE Geosci, Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 760–764, Jul. 2011.

16.     G. Mart´ın and A. Plaza, “Spatial-spectral preprocessing prior to endmember identification and unmixing of remotely sensed hyperspectral data,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 380–395, Apr. 2012.

17.     A. Plaza, P. Martinez, J. Plaza, and R. Perez, “Dimensionality reduction and classification of hyperspectral image data using sequences of extended morphological transformations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 466–479, Mar. 2005.

18.     D. Rogge, B. Rivard, J. Zhang, A. Sanchez, J. Harris, and J. Feng, “Integration of spatial–spectral information for the improved extraction of endmembers,” Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 287–303, 2007.

19.     Y. Zhao, J. Yang, Q. Zhang, L. Song, Y. Cheng, and Q. Pan, “Hyperspectral imagery super-resolution by sparse representation and spectral regularization,” EURASIP J. Advances Signal Process.,, vol. 2011, no. 1, p. 87, 2011.


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21.

Authors:

Bharti Tiwari, Papiya Dutta, Neha Shrivastava  

Paper Title:

Kalman Filter for Mimo of DM Highly Noise Resistive Communication

Abstract: Signals are carriers of information, both useful and unwanted. Extracting or enhancing the useful information from a mix of conflicting information is a simplest form of signal processing. Acoustic noise problems becomes more pronounce as increase in number of industrial equipment such as engines, transformers, compressors and blowers are in use. An adaptive filter is a filter     that     self-adjusts     its     transfer function according to an optimization algorithm driven by an error signal. Adaptive filtering is a wide area of researcher in present decade in the field of communication. Adaptive noise cancellation is an approach used for noise reduction  in  speech  signal.  This  paper works we presents an algorithm for performing effective channel estimation for multiple inputs multiple outputs (MIMO), the channel estimation is performed using an   proposed   Extended   Kalman   Filter (EKF).

Keywords:
Extracting or enhancing the useful information.


Reference:

1.        Extended Kalman Filter based Estimation for Fast Fading MIMO Channels, George Ignatius, Murali Krishna Varma U, Nitish. S. Krishna, Sachin. P.V , P.Sudheesh, (ICDCS), IEEE Explore, pp 466 – 469, March 2012
2.        Y. Li, "Simplified channel estimation for OFDM systems with multiple transmit antennas," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.  , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 67-75, Jan. 2002.

3.        Z. J. Wang and Z. Han, "A MIMO-OFDM channel estimation approach using time of arrivals," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. , vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1207-1213, May 2005.

4.        Z. J. Wang, Z. Han, and K. J. R. Liu, "MIMO-OFDM channel estimation via probabilistic data association based TOAs," in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2003, pp. 626-630.

5.        H. Hijazi and L. Ros, "Polynomial estimation of timevarying multi-path gains with intercarrier interference mitigation in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.  vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 140-151, Jan. 2009.

6.        J.O. Kim and J.-T. Lim, "MAP-based channel estimation for MIMOOFDM over fast Rayleigh fading channels," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. ,vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1963-1968, May 2008

7.        J. Arenas-García, V. Gómes-Verdejo, M. Martínez-Ramón, and A. R. Figueiras-Vidal, “Separate-variable adaptive combination of LMS adaptive filters for plant identification,” in Proc. 13th IEEE Int. Workshop Neural Networks Signal Processing, Toulouse, France,2003, pp. 239–248, IEEE.

8.        J.  Arenas-Garcia, A. R.  Figueiras-Vidal, and A. H. Sayed, “Mean-square   performance   of   a   convex combination of two adaptive filters,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1078–1090, Mar. 2006.

9.        An   Affine   Combination   of   Two   LMS Adaptive Filters—Transient Mean-Square Analysis Neil J. Bershad, Fellow, IEEE, José Carlos M.  Bermudez, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jean-Yves Tourneret, Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 56, NO. 5, MAY 2008

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