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Volume-2 Issue-5: Published on March 25, 2014
31
Volume-2 Issue-5: Published on March 25, 2014
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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-5, March 2014, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

S. Narasimha Kumar

Paper Title:

Experimental Investigation of Two Stroke Copper Coated Spark Ignition Engine with Gasoline and Gasohol

Abstract: The concept of catalytic combustion in spark ignition engines has been tried by various researches which offers improved thermal efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions due to oxidation of fuels with aid of catalyst. The piston top and cylinder head are coated with catalytic materials such as copper, chromium and nickel using flame spray gun. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine coated with catalytic materials are studied and are compared with the standard engine. In the present paper experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the performance and control the exhaust emissions from two-stroke, single cylinder, spark ignition (SI) engine, with alcohol blended gasoline (80% gasoline and 20% ethanol by volume) having copper coated combustion chamber [CCCC, copper-(thickness, 300 μ) coated on piston crown, inner side of cylinder head] provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as catalyst and compared with conventional SI engine (CE) with pure gasoline operation. Performance parameters  (brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and volumetric efficiency) and exhaust emissions (carbon monoxide (CO) and un-burnt hydro carbons (UBHC)) were determined with different values of brake mean effective pressure of the engine. A microprocessor-based analyzer was used for the measurement of CO/UBHC in the exhaust of the engine. Copper coated combustion chamber with alcohol blended gasoline considerably improved the performance and reduced pollutants in comparison with CE with pure gasoline operation. Catalytic converter with air injection significantly reduced pollutants with test fuels on both configurations of the combustion chamber. The catalyst, sponge reduced the pollutants effectively with both test fuels in both versions of the combustion chamber.

Keywords:
S.I. Engine, CE, copper coated combustion chamber, Performance, Exhaust Emissions, CO, UBHC, Catalytic converter, Sponge iron, Air injection.


References:

1.        Fulekar M H, Chemical pollution – a threat to human life, Indian J Env Prot, 1, 2004   353-359.
2.        Engineering Chemistry, edited by B.K. Sharma [Pragathi Prakashan (P) Ltd, Meerut] 2004, 150-160.

3.        Environmental Pollution Analysis, edited by S.M Khopkar [New Age International (P) Ltd, Publishers, New Delhi] 2005, 180-190.

4.        Ghose M K, Paul R and Benerjee  S K, Assessment of the impact of vehicle pollution on urban air quality, J Environ  Sci  &Engg , 46, 2004, 33-40.

5.        Usha Madhuri T, Srinivas T and Ramakrishna K, A study on automobile exhaust pollution with regard to carbon monoxide emissions, Nature, Environ & Poll Tech, 2,2003,  473-474.

6.        Murthy, P.V.K., Narasimha Kumar, S., Murali Krishna, M.V.S., Seshagiri Rao, V.V.R. and .Reddy,  D.N., “Aldehyde emissions from two-stroke and four-stroke spark ignition engines with methanol blended gasoline with catalytic converter”,  International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, ISSN: 0974-3154, Volume- 3, Number- 3, 2010, pp: 793—802. 

7.        Nedunchezhian  N  &  Dhandapani  S , Experimental investigation of cyclic variation of combustion parameters in a catalytically activated two-stroke SI engine combustion chamber, Engg  Today, 2,2000, 11-18. 

8.        Murali Krishna, M.V.S., .Kishor, K., Murthy, P.V.K., Gupta, A.V.S.S.K.S. and Narasimha Kumar, S., “Performance evaluation of copper coated four stroke spark ignition engine with gasohol with catalytic converter”, International Journal of Engineering Studies”, ISSN: 0975- 6469 Volume-2, Number-4, 2010, 465-473.

9.        Murali Krishna, M.V.S.  and Kishor, K., “Control of pollutants from copper coated spark ignition engine with methanol blended gasoline”, Indian Journal of Environmental Projection. 25(8), 732-738, 2005.

10.     Murali Krishna, M.V.S., Kishor, K., Prasad,  P.R.K. and Swathy, G.V.V., “Parametric studies of pollutants from copper coated spark ignition engine with catalytic converter with gasoline blended methanol”, Journal of Current Sciences, 9(2),  529-534,2006.

11.     Murali Krishna, M.V.S., Kishor, K. and Ramana Reddy, Ch. V., “Control of carbon monoxide emission in spark ignition engine with methanol blended gasoline and sponge iron catalyst”, Ecology, Environment &Conservation. 13(4), 13:17, 2008.

12.     Murali Krishna, M.V.S. and Kishor, K., “Investigations on catalytic coated spark ignition engine with methanol blended gasoline with catalytic converter”, Indian Journal (CSIR) of Scientific and Industrial Research, Volume-67, July, 543-548,2008.

13.     Kishor, K., Murali Krishna, M.V.S., Gupta, A.V.S.S.K.S., Narasimha Kumar, S.  and Reddy, D.N.,  “Emissions from copper coated spark ignition engine with methanol blended gasoline with catalytic converter”, Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 30(3), 2010, 177-18

14.     Ceviz, M.A. and Yu ¨ksel, F., “Eects of ethanol–unleaded gasoline blends on cyclic variability and emissions in a spark ignition engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume- 25, 917–925, 2005.

15.     Bahattin Celik, M., “Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume-28, 396–404, 2008.

16.     Al-Baghdadi., “Measurement and prediction study of the effect of ethanol blending on the performance and pollutants emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine”,  Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Volume- 222, Number- 5,  859-873, 2008.


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2.

Authors:

Mohamed Zakaulla, A. R. Anwar Khan, P. G. Mukunda

Paper Title:

The Effect of Electroless Cu Coating of SiC Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Al6061 based Cast Composite

Abstract: Al6061 – SiC Composites with varying wt% of uncoated and copper coated SiC particles reinforced were prepared through stir casting technique. SiC particles were coated with copper by Electroless deposition method. The effect of PdCl2 concentration and time of stirring of the activated particles in electroless solution are reported. It is observed that density, hardness and Tensile strength increases with increase in wt% of SiC. It was also found that Copper coated SiC particles reinforced composite showed considerable improvement with respect to density, hardness and Tensile strength in compare to uncoated SiC composite due to improved wettability and better interfacial bonding. Fracture surface of tensile specimen was examined under SEM, which revealed a dimple formation, areas of brittle fracture, voids and fractured particles. Copper coating on SiC particles improved the ductility due to better interface bonding.

Keywords:
Coated SiC, Electroless, Interface, Stir casting, Wettability.


References:

1.        Surappa, M.K., Rohatgi, P.K., 1981a. J. Mater. Sci. 16, 983.
2.        Stacey, M.H., 1988. Mater. Sci. Technol. 4, 227.

3.        Quigley, B.F., Abbaschian, G.J., Wunderline, R., Mehrabian, R., 1982. Metall. Trans. A 13, 93.

4.        Manoj single, D.Deepak Dwivedi, Lakhvir singh, Vikas chawla, Development of aluminium based silicon carbide particulate metal matrix composite, Journal of Minerals & Materials Characteization & Engineering, Vol-8, (2009), 455-467.

5.        Baberji, A., Surappa, M.K., Rohatgi, P.K., 1983. Metall. Trans. B 14, 273.

6.        Hashim, J., Looney, L., Hashmi, M.S.J.(2001). The enhancement of wettability of SiC particles in cast aluminium matrix composites. J of Mater Proc Tech, vol. 119, 329-335.

7.        Feng, A., McCoy, B.J., Munir, Z.A.,Cagliostro, D. (1998). Wettability of transition metal oxide surfaces. Mater Sci and Eng A, vol. 252, p. 50-56.

8.        Wang, Y.Q., Zhou, B.L., 1996. Composite A 27, 1139. Ding, D.Y., Wang, D.Z., Zhang, W.L., Yao, C.K., Rao, J.C., Li, D.X., 2000. Mater. Lett. 45, 6.

9.        D. Mandal, B.K. Dutta, S.C. Panigrahi, Effect of wt% reinforcement on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–2Mg base short steel fiber composites, Journal of materials processing technology 1 9 8 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 195–201.

10.     Ghosh, P.K., Ray, S., Rohatgi, P.K., 1984. Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met 25, 440.

11.     A.E.Al-Rawajfeh and S.M.A. Al Qawabah, Investigation of copper addition on the    mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of commercially pure aluminum, Emirates   Journal for Engineering research,14, (2009), 47-52.

12.     Dutta, L., Bourell, D.L., 1990. Acta Metall. 38, 2041.

13.     Rohatgi, P.K., Asthana, R., Das, S., 1986. Int. Met. Rev. 31 (3), 115.

14.     Baron, R.P., Wert, J.A., Gerard, D.A., Wawner, F.E., 1997. J. Mater.Sci. 32, 6435.


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3.

Authors:

K. Prabakaran, M. Viswanathan

Paper Title:

Distributed Accountability and Logging Mechanism for Data Sharing in the Cloud

Abstract: Cloud computing present an innovative technique to progress to their exploit and liberate replica for IT services base on the internet, by provided that for aggressively scalable and regularly virtualized resources because a service above the internet. It enables enormously scalable services toward be by no problem consumed above the internet on a desirable source. A most important characteristic of the cloud services to be facilitate user’s data be usually process hazily in anonymous tackle that users do not hold or else control. Whereas enjoy the ability bring by this original maturing technology, we suggest an innovative truly decentralized within sequence dependability formation to maintain course of the actual observe of the user’s data into the cloud. In fussy, we propose an object-centered shift to facilitate enable enclose our sorting mechanism mutually through user’s data and policy. We influence the sorting mechanism toward together create a dynamic and nomadic object , also near make sure to several access to user’s data determination to establish legalization along with mechanical sorting. To construct stronger user’s control, we besides there spread audit mechanism. We offer broad audition study to facilitate to illustrate the superior association and triumph of the deliberate result.

Keywords:
Cloud computing, Object-centered, Sorting mechanism, Innovative technique.


References:

1.        Andrew W.Appel and Edward W.Felten, “Proof-Carrying Authentication. In G.Tsudik, editor, Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Computing and Communications Security, pages 52-62, Singapore, Nov 1999. ACM Press.
2.        D.Boneh and M.K.Franklin, “Identity-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing,” Proc .Int’l Cryptography Conf. Advances in Cryptology, pp.213-229, 2001.

3.        Hsio Ting Lin, Tzeng.W.G, “A Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage System with Secure Data Forwarding,” IEEE transactions on Parallel and Distributed systems, 2012.

4.        J.H.Lin, R.L.Geiger, R.R.Smith, A.W.Chan and S.Wanchoo, “Method for Authentication a Java Archive (JAR) for Portable devices,” US Patent 6, 766, 353, July 2004.

5.        S.Pearson and A.Charlesworth, “Accountability as a Way Forward for Privacy Protection in Cloud,” proc. First Int’l Conf. Cloud Computing, 2009.

6.        S.Sundareswaran, A.Squicciarini and D.Lin, “Preventing Information Leakage from Indexing in the Cloud,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Cloud Computing, 2010.

7.        S.Sundareswaran, A.Squicciarini, D.Lin and S.Huang, “Promoting Distributed Accountability in the Cloud,” Proc, IEEE Int’l Conf. Cloud Computing, 2011.

8.        SmithaSundareswaran, Anna C.Squicciarini, Member, IEEE and Dan Lin, “Ensuring Distributed Accountability for Data Sharing in the Cloud,” IEEE transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol9, No.4 Jul/Aug 2012.


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4.

Authors:

Saeed Amini, Md. Tavakoli Bina, Amin Hajizadeh

Paper Title:

Reactive Power Compensation in Wind Power Plant Using SVC and STATCOM

Abstract: The WECS is a fixed speed/constant frequency system that is equipped with an induction generator driven by an unregulated wind turbine Although integration of high levels of wind power into an existing transmission system does not require a major redesign, it necessitates additional control and compensating equipment to enable recovery from severe system disturbances. This thesis investigates the use of a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) along with wind farms for the purpose of stabilizing the grid voltage after grid-side disturbances such as a three phase short circuit fault, temporary trip of a wind turbine and sudden load changes. The strategy focuses on a fundamental grid operational requirement to maintain proper voltages at the point of common coupling by regulating voltage. The DC voltage at individual wind turbine (WT) inverters is also stabilized to facilitate continuous operation of wind turbines during disturbances. The proposed paper is shown that the use of advanced control methods, such as the standard robust control method, in the control system of FACTS could improve their performance.

Keywords:
Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS); FACTS; STATCOM,SVC, voltage control, reactive power compensation.


References:

1.        Ray Hunter, George Elliot, ‘Wind-Diesel Systems, A Guide to the Technology and its Implementation,’ (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
2.        H. Nacfaire, ‘Wind-Diesel and Wind Autonomous Energy Systems’, in (ed.), (Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1989).

3.        N. G. Hingorani , L. Gyugyi, ‘Understanding FACTs: Concepts and technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems’, (IEEE Power Eng. Soc., New York, 2000).

4.        S. S. Murthy, O. P. Malik, and A. K. Tandon, ‘Analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generator’, IEE Proceedings, 129 (1982)6.

5.        E. Hammad, “Analysis of Power System Stability enhancement by Static VAR Compensators”, IEEE Transactions on Power System, Vol. PWRS-1, No. 4, November 1986.

6.        R. C. Bansal, “Automatic Reactive Power Control of Autonomous Hybrid Power System”, Ph.D. Thesis, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, December 2002.

7.        Bhim Singh, S. S. Murthy, and Sushma Gupta, “Analysis and Design of STATCOM based voltage regulator for self-excited induction generators,” IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 19, No.4, 2004, pp.783-790.pp. 647-655, 1998.

8.        E.G. Marra, and J. A. Pomilio, “Self-excited induction generator controlled by a VSPWM converter providing high power-factor current to a single-phase grid,” Proc. Industrial Electronics Society Conf, pp. 703-708, 1998.

9.        S. C. Kuo, and L. Wang, “Analysis of voltage control for a self-excited induction generator using a current-controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI),” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen., Transm. Distrib, Vol.148, No.5, pp. 431–438, 2001.

10.     E. Larsen, N. Miller, S. Nilsson, and S. Lindgren, “Benefits of GTO-based compensation systems for electric utility applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol.7, 1992; pp.2056–2063.

11.     B. Kouadri, Y. Tahir, “Power flow and transient stability modeling of a 12-pulse statcom, Journal of Cybernetic and Informatics,” Vo. 7, pp. 9-25, 2008.


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5.

Authors:

EhsanRezapour, Md. Tavakoli Bina, Amin Hajizadeh

Paper Title:

Reactive Power Controller Design for Single- Phase Grid- Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Abstract: Lack of adequate transmission capacity is a major impediment in connecting more of renewable energy sources (wind, solar) into the transmission grid.This paper at first presents a control algorithm for a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system in which aninverter designed for grid-connected photovoltaic arrays can synchronize a sinusoidal current output with a voltage grid. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. The controller feeds maximum active power intogrid at unity power factor, whereas it also allows the adjustment of reactive power injected into the grid. Simulation results show that the control system has good performances.

Keywords:
Grid connected, photovoltaic system, reactive power, MPTT Algorithm.


References:

1.        Hassaine, L.; Olias, E.; Quintero, J.; Barrado, A., “Digital controlbased on the shifting phase for grid connected photovoltaic inverter”,Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2008. APEC 2008. Twenty-Third Annual IEEE, pp.945-951, Feb. 2008.
2.        Byunggyu Yu; Youngseok Jung; Junghun So; Hyemi Hwang;Gwonjong Yu, “A Robust Anti-islanding Method for Grid-ConnectedPhotovoltaic Inverter”, Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference, vol. 2, pp.2242-2245, May. 2006.

3.        JeyrajSelvaraj and Nasrudin A. Rahim, “Multilevel Inverter ForGrid-Connected PV System Employing Digital PI Controller”, IEEETRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol.56, no.1,pp.149-158, Jan. 2009.

4.        Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, M.; Dellapos;Aquila, A., "Single-PhaseGrid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems With Power QualityConditioner Functionality", Power Electronics and Applications, 2007European Conference, pp.1-11, Sep. 2007.

5.        Sung-Hun Ko; Seong-Ryong Lee; Dehbonei, H.; Nayar, C.V., “AGrid-Connected Photovoltaic System with Direct Coupled PowerQuality Control”, IEEE Industrial Electronics, IECON 2006 - 32ndAnnual Conference, pp.5203-5208, Nov. 2006.

6.        Albuquerque, F.L.; Moraes, A.J.; Guimaraes, G.C.; Sanhueza, S.M.R.; Vaz, A.R., “Optimization of a photovoltaic system connectedto electric power grid”, Transmission and Distribution Conferenceand Exposition: Latin America, 2004 IEEE/PES, pp.645–650, Nov.2004.

7.        Huili Sun; Lopes, L.A.C.; ZhixiangLuo, “Analysis and comparison ofislanding detection methods using a new load parameter space”,Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2004. 30th Annual Conferenceof IEEE, vol.2, pp.1172-1177, Nov. 2004.

8.        PhanQuocDzung; Le Minh Phuong; Pham QuangVinh; NguyenMinh Hoang; Tran Cong Binh, “New Space Vector Control Approach for Four Switch Three Phase Inverter (FSTPI)”, Power Electronicsand Drive Systems, 2007. PEDS07. 7th International Conference,pp.1002-1008, Nov. 2007.

9.        Myrzik, J.M.A.; Calais, M., “String and module integrated invertersfor single-phase grid connected photovoltaic systems - a review”,Power Tech Conference Proceedings, 2003 IEEE Bologna, vol.2, June2003.

10.     PhanQuangAn, "Etude par simulation d’un systèmephotovoltaïquehybridé", Master thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse(ENSEEIHT), 2007.

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6.

Authors:

K. Nithya, A. Rajiv Kannan

Paper Title:

A Modern Approach for Urgent Script Cluster Processing and Summarization with Involuntary Length Recognition

Abstract: Detection the apposite extent of clusters to which credentials should be separation is vital in text cluster. In this dissertation, we suggest a fresh approach, namely DPMTP (Dirichilet Process Model Trait Partition), to realize the embryonic huddle construction based on the DPM model lacking requiring the amount of huddle as key. Elements classify into two class, important expressions and un match terms.Also find the new approach for simultaneouslyclustering and summarization.Probabilistic Hidden Semantic Analysis has been popularly used in document analysis.Topropose Bi-mixture Probabilistic Hidden Semantic Analysis , a new formulation of PHSA that allows the number of latent word classes to be different from the number of latent document classes.Extended method of Bi-PHSA Bi-mixture PHSA with sentence bases (Bi-PHSAS) to simultaneously cluster and summarize the documents utilizing the mutual influence of the document clustering and summarization procedures. Additionally propose a Bayesian nonparametric model for multidocument summarization in order to determine the proper lengths of sum maries.

Keywords:
Huddle, DMA, Trait Partition, DPMTP, BNP Summarization.


References:

1.        Akaike, H. 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on 19(6):716–723.
2.        Blei, D., and Lafferty, J. 2009. Topic models. Text mining: classification, clustering, and applications 71.

3.        Blei, D.; Ng, A.; and Jordan, M. 2003. Latent dirichlet allocation. The Journal of Machine Learning Research.

4.        Cho, H.; Dhillon, I.; Guan, Y.; and Sra, S. 2004. Minimum sum-squared residue co-clustering of gene expression data. In SDM, 114–125.

5.        Dhillon, I.; Mallela, S.; and Modha, D. 2003. Information-theorticco-clustering. In SIGKDD.

6.        Ding, C.; Li, T.; Peng, W.; and Park, H. 2006. Orthogonal nonnegative matrix tri-factorizations for clustering. In SIGKDD.

7.        Ding, C.; Li, T.; and Peng, W. 2006. Nonnegative matrix factorization and probabilistic latent.

8.        K. Nigam, A.K. McCallum, S. Thrun, and T.M. Mitchel, “Text Classification from Labeled and Unlabeled Documents

9.        Using Em,” J. Machine Learning, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 103-134, 2000.

10.     G. Yu, R. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Document Clustering via Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Feature Selection,” Proc.

11.     ACM Int’l Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 763-772, 2010.

12.     D. Blei and M. Jordan, “Variational Inference for Dirichlet Process Mixtures,” Bayesian Analysis, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 121-144, 2006.

13.      Zhanying He, Chun Chen, Jiajun Bu, CanWang, Lijun Zhang, Deng Cai and Xiaofei He. 2012. Document Summarization Based on Data Reconstruction. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

14.     Michael Kaisser, Marti A. Hearst, John B. Lowe. 2008. Improving Search Results Quality by Customizing Summary Lengths. Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT,pages 701-709.

15.     Chin-YewLin, GuihongCao, JianfengGao, andJian-YunNie. 2006. An Information-Theoretic Approach to Automatic Evaluation of Summaries. Proceedings ofNAACL2006, pages 463-470.


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7.

Authors:

Nirmala N. Pansare, Ashwini C. Ithape, Shamal R. Gawande, A. D. Jadhav

Paper Title:

Cloud Compiler and Technical Support

Abstract: The system mainly deals with the creation of Integrated Development Environment for the java language to code compile, run, test and debug the code using the browser based IDE through the Internet and a web browser. The client machine doesn’t having java development kit. The paper aims to describe an centralized compiler which helps to reduce the problems of portability and storage space. The errors/ outputs of the code are stored in a more convenient way. Also, installation of the compiler on each computer is avoided. It was assumed that the user will use his or her favorite text editor to create and correct program files In this system we also create new java editor to create and correct program files and install mobile technology in which we can type program code in mobile and send to centralized server compiler and get the accepted output through GSM phone, but we required to connect another mobile technology to the centralized server. Another important application of our system is if we occur any query while doing the program then put this query in technical blog and if anyone are interested to give answer of that question then they put their answer on the technical blog and show this discussion for all user.

Keywords:
Java Compiler, Cloud Computing, Technical Blog, Logger, GSM Phone, Bluetooth Dongle, LAN Cable.


References:

1.        Cloud Documentation and Centralized Compiler for Java & Php
2.        Online Java Compiler Using Cloud Computing .[Mayank Patel]

3.        Online C/C++ Compiler using Cloud Computing.[Aamir Nizam Ansari, Siddharth Patil, Arundhati Navada, Aditya Peshave, Venkatesh Borole,Pune Institute of Computer Technology, Pune,University of Pune.

4.        CENTRALIZED C# COMPILER USING CLOUD COMPUTING. [A.RABIYATHUL BASARIYA Computer Science and Engineering Sudharsan Engineering College, K.TAMIL SELVI ,Sudharsan Engineering College ktamil10@yahoo.co.in]

5.        Grobauer, B. Walloschek, T. Stocker, E., “Understanding Cloud Computing Vulnerabilities”, Security & Privacy,IEEE March-April 2011

6.        Chunye Gong Jie Liu Qiang Zhang Haitao Chen Zhenghu Gong, “The Characteristics of Cloud Computing”, Parallel Processing Workshops (ICPPW), 2010 39th International Conference


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8.

Authors:

Ram Baksh

Paper Title:

A Survey on Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract: Extensive usage of wireless sensor network (WSN) is the reason of development of many routing protocols. Recent advances in WSN now witness the increased interest in the potential use in applications like Military, Environmental, Health (Scanning), Space Exploration, Vehicular Movement, Mechanical stress levels on attached objects, disaster management, combat field reconnaissance etc. Sensors are expected to be remotely deployed in unattended environments. Routing as one key technologies of wireless sensor network has now become a hot research because the applications of WSN is everywhere, it is impossible that there is a routing protocol suitable for all applications. In this paper, the various routing protocol are classified and described. The growing interest in WSN and the continual emergence of new architectural techniques inspired surveying the characteristics, applications and communication protocols for such a technical area.

Keywords:
Energy Awareness, Hierarchical Routing Protocols, Routing Protocols Wireless Sensor Networks.


References:

1.        S.Dai, X. Jing and L.Li, “Research and Analysison Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”, in Proc. Of IEEE International Conference on Communication, Circuits and System, vol. 1, pp.407-411,may,2005.
2.        J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E Kamal,” Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey”, IEEE Wireless Communication Magazine vol. 11, no 6, pp. 6-28, December, 2004

3.        K.Akkaya and M. Younis, “ Energy-Aware Routing of Delay- constrained Data in wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Communication System, Special Issue on QoSSupport and Service Differentian in Wireless Networks, vol, 17, no. 6, pp. 663-687, April, 2004

4.        P.,Jiang, Y. Wen, X. Shen and A.Xue. “ A Study of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks”, in Proc. Of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, vol. 1, pp. 266-270, June, 2006.

5.        Q. Jiang and D. Manivannan, “Routing Protocols for Sensor Networks,” in Proc. Of IEEE Consumer Communication and Networking Conference(CCNC), pp.93-98,January, 2004

6.        W. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, H. Balakrishnan, Adaptive protocols for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Net- working (MobiCom 99), Seattle, WA, August 1999.

7.        C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, Directed diusion: a scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the 6th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Comput- ing and Networking (MobiCom 00), Boston, MA, August 2000.

8.        D. Braginsky, D. Estrin, Rumor routing algorithm for sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the First Workshop on Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA), Atlanta, GA, October 2002.

9.        M. Chu, H. Haussecker, F. Zhao, Scalable information- driven sensor querying and routing for ad hoc heteroge- neous sensor networks, The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 16 (3) (2002) 293– 313.

10.     A. Manjeshwar, D.P. Agrawal, TEEN: a protocol for enhanced eciency in wireless sensor networks, in: Pro- ceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, San Francisco, CA, April 2001.

11.     R. Shah, J. Rabaey, Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Orlando, FL, March 2002.

12.     N. Sadagopan et al., The ACQUIRE mechanism for ecient querying in sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocol and Applications, Anchorage, AK, May 2003.

13.     S. Hedetniemi, A. Liestman, A survey of gossiping and broadcasting in communication networks, Networks 18 (4) (1988) 319–349.

14.     D. Estrin et al., Next century challenges: scalable coordi- nation in sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 99), Seattle, WA, August 1999.

15.     B. Krishnamachari, D. Estrin, S. Wicker, Modeling data centric routing in wireless sensor networks, in: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York, June 2002.

16.     D. Ganesan et al., Highly resilient, energy ecient multi- path routing in wireless sensor networks, Mobile Comput- ing and Communications Review 5 (4) (2002) 11–25.

17.     C. Schurgers, M.B. Srivastava, Energy ecient routing in wireless sensor networks, in: The MILCOM Proceedings on Communications forNetwork-Centric Operations: Creating the Information Force, McLean, VA, 2001.

18.     L. Subramanian, R.H. Katz, An architecture for building self configurable systems, in: Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Comput- ing, Boston, MA, August 2000.

19.     Y.Xu,J.Heidemann,D. Estrin, Geography-informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing, in: Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 01), Rome, Italy, July 2001.

20.     Yao, Y.; Gehrke, J. The Cougar Approach to In-Network Query Processing in Sensor Networks. SIGMOD Rec. 2002, 31, 9–18.

21.     Manjeshwar, E.; Agrawal, D.P. TEEN: A Routing Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, April, 2001; pp. 2009–2015.


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9.

Authors:

M. Pitchaimani, G. Somasundara Ori

Paper Title:

Existence of Critical Gompertz Parameter for Solid Tumour Growth Model and Its Asymptotic Expression

Abstract: In this paper we provide an interval of existence of critical Gompertz parameter of solid tumour growth model and their asymptotic formula for large number of tumour cells, in the absence of specific volume data at particular time.

Keywords:
Critical Gompertz parameter, tumour cells, specific volume data.


References:

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4.        S.Cooper, Distinguishing between linear and exponential cell growth during the division cycle: Single-cell studies, cell-culture studies and the object of cell-cycle research, Theor.Biol Med.Model3,p.10(2006).

5.        D.Dingli, M.D.Cascino, K.Josic, S.J.Russell, and Z.Bajzer, Mathematical modelling of cancer radiovirotherapy,Math. Biosci.199, pp.55-78,(2006).

6.        P.Hahnfeldt, D.Panigrahy, J.Folkman and L.Hlatky, Tumour development under angiogenic signaling: A dynamical theory of tumour growth, treatment response, and post vascular dormancy,Cancer Res.59,pp4770-4775, (1999).

7.        A.R.Kansal, S.Torquato, G.R.Harsh, E.A.Chiocca and T.S.Deisboeck, simulated brain tumour growth dynamics using a three-dimensional cellular automaton,J.Theor. Biol203, pp 367-382,(2000).

8.        F.Kozusko and Z.Bajzer, Combining Gompertizian growth and cell population dynamics, Math.Biosci.185, pp 153-167, (2003).

9.        Anna Kane Laird. Dynamics of Tumour Growth. Br J Cancer. 18(3), 490-502 (September 1964).

10.     Anna Kane Laird. Dynamics of Tumour Growth:Comparisons of growth rates and extrapolation of growth curve to one cell, Br J Cancer. 19, pp.278-291 (1965).

11.     M.Marusic, Z.Bajzer, S.Vuk-Pavlovic and J.P.Freyer, Tumor growth in vivo and as multicellular spheroids compared by mathematical-models. Bull.Math.Biol56,pp.617-631, (1994).

12.     J.A.McCredie, W.R.Inch, J.Kruuv and T.A Watson, The rate of tumour growth in animals, Growth 29, pp.331-347, (1965).

13.     S.Michelson and J.Leith, Positive feedback and angiogenesis in tumour growth control,Bull.Math.Biol.59,pp.233-254,(1997).

14.     L.Norton, R.Simson, H.D.Brereton and A.E.Bogden, Predicting the course of Gompertizian Growth, Nature264, pp.542-545, (1976).

15.     C.Panetta, A Mathematical model of periodically pulsed chemotherapy: Tumour recurrence and metastasis in a competitive environment.Bull.Math.Biol58, pp425-447, (1996).

16.     E.S.Lakshminarayanan and M.Pitchaimani. Existence of Gompertz parameters and its asymptotic formulae for a large population. Appl. Math. Lett. 17(2), 173 - 180 (2004).

17.     X.Xu.The biological foundation of the Gompertz model .Int.J.Biomed. Comput. 20,pp.35-39,(1987).

18.     Folkman.J. Tumour angiogenesis. Adv.Cancer.Res. 19,331-358,(1974).

19.     Folkman.J. The vascularisation of tumours. In:Cancer Biology(edited by E.C.Friedberg),Scientific American 115-124,(1976).

20.     Muthukarrupan V.R., Kubai.L and Auerbach. R.Tumour-induced neovascularisation in the mouse eye. J.Natl.Cancer Inst.69, 699-705,(1982).

21.     Helen M.Byrne. A weakly nonlinear analysis of a model of avascular solid tumour growth.J.Math.Biol. 39:59-89, (1999).

22.     Kerr.J.F.R. Shrinkage necrosis; a distinct mode of cellular death. J.Path. 105, 13-20, (1971).

23.     Sutherland, R.M.Cell and environment interactions in tumour microregions: the multicell spheroid model. Science240, 177-184, (1988).

24.     McElwain.D.L.S. and Morris.L.E. Apoptosis as a volume loss mechanism in mathematical models of solid tumour growth. Math.Biosci. 39, 147-157,(1978).

25.     Maggelakis.S.A, and Adam.J.A. Mathematical model of prevascular growth of a spherical carcinoma. Math.Comput.Modelling. 13, 23-38,(1990).

26.     Byrne.H.M and Chaplain.M.A. Growth of necrotic tumours in the presence and absence of inhibitors. Math.Biosci. 135, 187-216,(1996).

27.     L.Bass H.S.Green and H.Boxenbaum, Gompertzian mortality derivedfrom competitionbetween cell-types: congenial, toxicologic and biometric determinants of longevity, J.Theor.Biol.140,p.263, (1989).

28.     I. D. Bassukas. Comparative Gompertzian analysis of alterations of tumour growth patterns.Cancer Research, 54,p. 4385 - 4392 (1994).

29.     P. Fuchshuber, M. Gunther, W. Feaux de Lacroix and R. Fischer.A Mathematical model for metastatic growth illustrated by in vivo and in vitro growth of a transplantable mammarycarcinoma in mice. Anticancer Research, 6,p. 819 - 828 (1986).

30.     A.S.Qi, X.Zheng, C.Y.Du and B.S.An. A cellular automaton model of cancerous growth. J.theor. Biol. 161, 1 - 12 (1993).

31.     K.Rygaard and M.Spang-Thomsen, Quantitationand Gompertzian analysis of tumour growth,Breast Cancer: Res.Treat. 46,p.303,(1997).
32.     N.Y.Tyurin, A.Y.Yakovlev, J.Shi and L.Bass, Testing a model of aging in animal experiments,Biometics51,p.363,(1995).
33.     L. Ferrante, S. Bompadre, L. Possati, and L. Leone. Parameter estimation in a Gompertzian stochastic model for tumor growth. Biometrics, 56, p.1076 - 1081 (2000).

34.     Z.H.Levine, B.R.Borchardt, N.J.Brandenburg, C.W.Clark, B.Muralikrishnan, C.M.Shakarji Chen, J.J.Siege. E.L. RECIST versus volume measurement in Medical CT using ellipsoids ofknown size. Optics Express 18(8), 8151 8159 (April 12, 2010).

35.     A.P.Peskin, K.Kafadar, A.M.Santos and G.G. Haemer. Robust Volume Calculations of Tumours of Various Sizes. The 2009 International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision, and Pattern Recognition. (July 2009).

36.     Adele P. Peskin and Alden A. Dima. Modeling Clinical Tumours to Create Reference Data for Tumour Volume Measurement. Spriger-Verleg Berlin Heidelgerg, G.Bebis et.al.(Eds).ISVC(2010), part II, LNCS 6454 736-746 (2010).

37.     C.E.Finch, M.C.Pike and M.Witten. Slow mortality rate accelerations during ageing in some animals approximate that of humans.Science, 249, 902 - 905 (1990).

38.     F. M O Al-Dweri, D. Guirado, A. M. Lallena and V. Pedraza. E_ect on tumour control of time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy: an empirical approach using MonteCarlo simulation. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 2827 - 2839 (2004).

39.     G.G.Steel and L.F.Lamerton, The Growth rate of Human tumours , Br J Cancer. 20(1):7486,(1966).

40.     Boag, J.W. Maximum likelihood estimates of the proportion of patients cured by cancer therapy.J. R. Stat. Soc. 11, 15-53,(1949).

41.     Collins. V. P., Loe_e. R. K. and Tivery H. Observations on growth rates of human tumors.Am.J. Roentgenol Radium Ther .Nucl Med..76(5),988-1000, (1956)

42.     M. Pitchaimani,G.Somasundara Ori and T. Eakin, Unique Estimation and Sensitivity Behaviour of Gompertz Tumour Growth Model Parameter(Submitted).

43.     E.S.Lakshminarayanan and M.Pitchaimani. Existence of critical Gompertz parameters and its asymptotic expression. Comp.Math. with applications 55,pp.1302-1309, (2008).

44.     M. Pitchaimani , G.Somasundara Ori , Existence of solid tumour growth Gompertz parameter and its asymptotic expression, (Submitted).

45.     I.S. Gradshteyn and I.M. Ryzhik. Table of Integrals, Series and Products Academic Press(1980).

46.     K. C. Iarosz, C. C. Martins, A. M. Batista, R. L. Viana, S. R.Lopes, I. L. Caldas and T. J.P. Penna. On a cellular automaton with time delay for modelling cancer tumours Journal of Physics Conference Series 285 (2011).


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10.

Authors:

G. V. Krishna Reddy, H. S. Monohar N. Chikkanna, B. Umamaheswar Goud

Paper Title:

Evaluation and Enhancement of Thermal Transport Characteristics of Metal Matrix Composites and Contact Interfaces

Abstract: In this work, effort has been made in the evaluation and enhancement of thermal transport characteristics of metal matrix composites and contact interfaces. The thermal management systems are important in today’s faster growing industrial needs which are demanding the high end processors with highest speed and reliability of performance. The thermal management systems are used for applications like central processing unit (CPU) cooling, cooling of electronics circuit boards, cooling of mechanical and automobile systems like engine cooling. However, this work focuses on thermal management systems related to CPU cooling. In this work, initially, the importance and motivation behind the evaluation of the thermal characteristics for the MMC’s as well as TIMs. Thermal contact resistance in heat transfer applications are presented with examples. The heat transfer phenomenon at the interfaces is detailed with the classification based on contact criteria. The development of new MMC’s was detailed along with the different compositions of the MMCs. For this, initially, baseline materials were explained in detail along their thermal properties. Six MMC’s have been proposed with varying compositions of aluminum and silicon carbide. Aluminum was varied in percentage composition from 25% to 35% . The MMC’s were evaluated for the properties like thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, CTE, density and Young’s modulus. Also, the variation of these properties with respect to temperature is evaluated. Finally recommendations are given for the MMC’s based on the required property criteria of the heat source material. As a second approach, the thermal contact resistance models were developed. A measurement system for contact resistances has been established by performing measurements on the known properties of the greases.  Application of thermal greases is given in detail. The measurement system was established by conducting the experiments.

Keywords:
Heat sink, Aluminum, silicon carbide, Thermal grease, Thermal interface material, contact interface.


References:

1.        Fletcher L S. A review of thermal control materials for metallic junctions. J Spacecraft Rocket, 1972, 9: 849-850
2.        Kraus A D, Bar-Cohen A. Thermal analysis and            control electronic equipment. New-York: McGraw-Hill, 1983

3.        D.R. Tenny, G.F. Sykes, and D.E. Bowles, “Composite Materials for Space Structures,” Proc. Third European Symp. Spacecraft Materials in Space Environment, ESA SP-232 (Noordwijk, Netherlands: European Space Agency, October 1985), pp. 9–21.

4.        Madhusudana C V, Fletcher L S. Contact heat transfer-The last decade. AIAA J, 1986, 24(3): 510-523

5.        S.P. Rawal and M.S. Misra, “Dimensional Stability of Cast Gr-Mg Composites,” 19th International SAMPE Conference (Covina, CA: SAMPE, October 1987), pp. 134–147.

6.        D.M. Goddard, P.D. Burke, and D.E. Kizer, “Continuous Graphite Fiber MMC’s,” Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1 (Materials Park, OH: ASM, 1987), p. 867.

7.        C. Thaw et al., “Metal Matrix Composites for Microwave Packaging Components,” Electronic Packaging and Production (August 1987), pp. 27–29.

8.        M.E. Buck and R.J. Suplinskas, “Continuous Boron Fiber MMC’s,” Engineered Metal Handbook, Vol. 1 (Materials Park, OH: ASM, 1987), pp. 851–857.

9.        Fletcher L S. A review for thermal enhancement techniques for electronic systems, IEEE T Component Hybrid ManufTechnol, 1990, 13(4): 1012-1021

10.     Madhusudana C V. Thermal Contact Conductance. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996

11.     Lambert M A, Fletcher L S. Review of models for thermal contact conductance of metals. J. Thermo physics Heat Transf, 1997, 11(2): 129- 140

12.     Yovanovich M M. Conduction and thermal contact resistances (conductances). In: Rohsenow W M, Harnett J P, Cho Y I, eds. Handbook of Heat Transfer. Chapter 3. New York: McGraw Hill, 1998

13.     Yovanovich M M, Antonetti V W. Application of thermal contact resistance theory to electronic packages. In: Bar-Cohen A, Kraus A D, eds. Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems. New York: Hemisphere Publishing, 1998

14.     Fletcher L S. Recent developments in contact conductance heat transfer. Transa ASME J heat transf, 1988, 110: 1059-1070

15.     M.A. Occhionero, R.A. Hay, R.W. Adams, K.P. Fennessy, Aluminium silicon carbide (AlSiC) for cost-effective thermal management and functional microelectric packaging design solutions 12th European Microelectronics and packaging Conference, June 7e9 1999, pp. S10-S04.

16.     Occhionero, M.A.; Hay, R.A.; Adams, R.W. and K.P. Fennessy, Aluminium silicon carbide (AlSiC) for cost-effective thermal management and functional micro electric packaging design solutions 12th European Microelectronics and packaging Conference, June 7e9 1999, pp. S10-S04.

17.     Hecht, R. L., Dinwiddie, R. B., and Porter, W. D., Predicted Influence of Materials’ Thermal Properties on Disc Brake Roughness Due to Thermoelastic Instability". Proc. of TMS Fall Meeting, 1999.

18.     D.B. Miracle and B. Maruyama, “Metal Matrix Composites for Space Systems: Current Uses and Future Opportunities,” Proc. National Space and Missile Materials Symp., ed. M. Stropki (Dayton, OH: Anteon Corp., 2000).

19.     Ogando, J. Thermally conductive plastic beat the heat Available at.
http://www.designnews.com/article/165Thermally_conductive_plastics_beat_the_heat.php (2001).
20.     J. Miller, Thermally conductive polymers delete the heat Available at http://machinedesign.com/article/thermally-conductive-polymers-delete-the-heat-0503 (2001)

21.     J. Ogando, Thermally conductive plastic beat the heat Available at. http://www.designnews.com/article/165-Thermally_conductive_plastics_beat_the_heat.php (2001).
22.     Lambert M A, Fletcher L S. Thermal contact conductance of non-flat, rough, metallic coated metals. Trans ASME J Heat Transf, 2002, 124: 405- 412
23.     A. Mortensen, C. SanMarchi, H.P. Degischer, Glossary of terms specific to metal matrix composites, MMC-Assess Thematic Network (2002) Available at.

24.     Technologies Research Corporation, USA, Aluminium metal matrix composites technology roadmap Available at. http://www.almmc.com/AlMMCRoadmapMay2002.pdf (2002)

25.     Myers, B.A., Cooling issues for automotive electronics, electronics Cooling (2003) issue:August2003, available at.www.electronics-cooling.com 

26.     Yovanovich M M, Marotha E. Thermal spreading and contact resistance. In: Bejan A, Kraus A D, eds. Heat Transfer Handbook. Chapter 4. New York: Wiley, 2003

27.     J.M. Molina, M. Rheme, J. Carron, L. Weber, Thermal conductivity of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with mixtures of diamond and SiC particles, ScriptaMaterialia 58 (2007) 393-396.

28.     Chander, A. Thermal management in electronic components e canpolymersreplace metals or ceramics? Available at.http://www.slideshare.net/ (2008)(accessed 04.02.10).

29.     Chander, A. Thermal management in electronic components e can polymers replace metals or ceramics Available at. http://www.slideshare.net/ (2008).

30.     R. Prieto, J.M. Molina, J. Narciso, E. Louis, Fabrication and properties of graphite flakes/metal composites for thermal management applications, ScriptaMaterialia 59 (2008) 11-14.

31.     A. Chander, Thermal management in electronic components e can polymers replace metals or ceramics Available at. http://www.slideshare.net/ (2008).

32.     MMC Metal Matrix Cast Composites, METGRAFTM products data sheet availableat. http://www.mmccinc.com (2009)

33.     Myers, B.A.; Eesley, G. and Ihms, D., electronics cooling in the automotive environment, electronics Cooling (2010) issue: April 2010, Available at. www.electronics-cooling.com

34.     Cola, B.A, Carbon nanotubes as high performance thermal interface materials, Electronics cooling (2010) issue: April 2010, Available at. www.electronicscooling.com


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11.

Authors:

Waman Sudhir K, Patil Shamli N, Bhamare Bhushan B, Thorat Avinash  A, Gaikwad Kundan  K

Paper Title:

Video Recovery and Enhancement

Abstract: Today is the world of digitization. Everything in the world is digitized. So, the video also plays an important part. Now-a-days many false videos are created or some of the part of the original video is damaged. Video recovery and enhancement provide a way to repair the damaged parts in the video. This is done by completing Motion and Frame.

Keywords:
Digitization, Frame, Motion, Video.


References:

1.        S. Sharoon Shalini and D. Menaka, “Exemplar based image and video Inpainting”, in International Journal of communications and engineering, March 2012, Volume - 04.
2.        Sean Moran, “Video Inpainting”, Apr. 2009.

3.        Sreelekshimi Das, GopuDarsan, Shreyas L, DivyaDevan, “Blind detection method for video Inpainting Forgery”, December 2012, Volume – 60.

4.        K. Reghavendra, “Video Inpainting and Object Separation”, IIT Kanpur, December 2007.

5.        Nick C. Tang, Chiou-Ting Hsu, Chih-Wen Su, Timothy K. Shih, Hong-Yuan Mark Liao, Member IEEE, “Video Inpainting on Digitized Vintage Films Via Maintaining Spatiotemporal Continuity”, Volume – 13, August 2011

6.        Vijay VenkateshMahalingam, “Digital Inpainting Algorithms Evaluations”, University of Kentucky, 2010.

7.        Mani Ranjbar, ShohrehKasaei, “Fast and Accurate Inpainting for Advanced Video Coders”, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

8.        Anu Rachel Abraham, J. Devi Shree, “A survey on Video Inpainting”, International Journal of Computer Application, Volume – 55, No – 9, October – 2012.


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12.

Authors:

Pooja Jha, Soni Goyal, Tanya Kumari, Neha Gupta

Paper Title:

Robots Exclusion Protocol

Abstract: World Wide Web (WWW) is a big dynamic network and a repository of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. Web crawlers are used to recursively traverse and download web pages for search engines to create and maintain the web indices. Moreover, the need of maintaining the up-to-date pages causes repeated traversal of websites by crawler. Due to this, the resources like CPU cycles, disk space, and network bandwidth, etc., become overloaded which may lead to crashing of website and increase in web traffic. However, websites can limit the crawlers through Robots Exclusion Protocol. It is a mechanism for www servers to indicate to crawlers which part of their server should not be accessed. To implement this protocol, a plain text file called robots.txt is created and placed under root directory of the web servers. This approach was chosen as a crawler can find the access policy with only single document retrieval. Also, it supports auto-discovery of XML sitemaps. Thus, this protocol aids in controlling the crawler's activity.

Keywords:
Robots Exclusion Protocol, robots.txt, Robots Meta tags, web crawler.


References:

1.        M. Koster, A method for web robots control. Internet Draft, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 1996.
2.        Maile Ohye, Controlling Crawling and indexing .from:https://developers.google.com/webmasters/control-crawl-index/docs/getting_started.

3.        Niraj Singhal,Ashutosh Dixit, R.P. Agarwal and A.K. Sharma, Reducing Network Traffic and Managing Volatile Web Contents Using Migrating Crawlers with Table of Variable Information, World Applied Sciences Journal 19 (5), IDOSI Publications, 2012 pp : 666-673

4.        R. A, Bal, S. Nath Novel Approach to Filter Non-Modified Pages at Remote Site without Downloading during Crawling, In: Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing, 2009. ARTCom '09. International Conference on 27-28 Oct. 2009

5.        Wendy Chisholm, Gregg Vanderheiden from Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 - Guideline 7.  September 28, 2007

6.        Yang Sun, A Comprehensive Study of the Regulation and Behavior of Web Crawler; Pennsylvania University, 2008.


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13.

Authors:

Manjanaik N, Manjunath R

Paper Title:

Intra Frame Coding for Advanced Video Coding Standard to Control PSNR and Bitrate Using Gaussian Pulse

Abstract: This paper proposes Intra frame coding for Advanced Video Coding Standard to control PSNR, bit rate and achieve high compression ratio using Gaussian pulse.  Gaussian pulse, which improves the reconstructed image ie removes ringing, blocking artifacts and improves functionality of quantization. The Gaussian pulse operation smoothens the signal.  Each Gaussian pulse multiplication scales the information content of the signal in a reversible way. The resulting signal would turn abstract. The proposed algorithm intra frame coding implemented using matlab. In the proposed algorithm Gaussian pulse applied before quantization block. The simulation results are presented using Matlab. The PSNR, compressed ratio and bit rate achived for Intra frames ie mother daughter frames, was presented for different quantization parameters with Gaussian scaling factor. The proposed algorithm gives better PSNR, compression ratio and low bit rate. The simulation results are obtained for yuv video sequences in CIF and QCIF format for different quantization parameters with Gaussian scaling factor. The simulation results are listed in table and represented rate distortion curve, compression ratio vs quantization parameter, and bit rate vs quantization parameter. The simulation results shows that the proposed algorithm achieve controlled reconstructed picture quality (PSNR), higher compression ratio and reduced bit rate.

Keywords:
AVC, Macroblock, Gaussian pulse, PSNR, CAVLC, DCmode, QCIF.


References:

1.        Iain E.Richardson, The H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression: Video coding for Next-generation Multimedia, Johan Wiley& Sons, first edition 2003.
2.        Iain E. Richarson, The H.264 Advanced Video Compression Standard, Johan Wiley& Sons, Second edition 2010.

3.        Chaminda Sampath Kannangara, Complexity Management of H.264/AVC Video   Compression, the Robert Gordon University 2006.

4.        Thomas Wiegand, Gory. Sullivan, Seniour Member, IEEE, Gisle Bjontegaard and Ajay Luthra, Overview of the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard, IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems for video Technology, Vol. No 7 2003.

5.        Rein van den Boomgaard and Rik van der Weij, Gaussian Convolutions Numerical Approximations Based on Interpolation, Intelligent Sensory Information Systems, University of Amsterdam, and The Netherlands.

6.        Pascal Gwosdek, Sven Grewenig1, Andr´es Bruhn, and Joachim Weickert, Theoretical Foundations of Gaussian Convolution by Extended Box Filtering.

7.        http://www.vcodex.com

8.        http://www.pixeltools.com/h264_paper.html

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14.

Authors:

Alexander Osei-Owusu, Stephen E. Armah

Paper Title:

Investigating the Applicability of Dynamic Pricing to Ghana’s Telecom Infrastructure Market

Abstract: Telecom operators in Ghana are likely to face large infrastructure investment needs over the coming decade because of rising demand for mobile phone and other related services due to population pressure and an expanding economy. This raises questions about the traditional model of single ownership of physical telecom infrastructures and network layers. The situation has led to infrastructure sharing (IS) among Ghana’s major telecom infrastructure owners. However, IS has not been very successful as a cost effective solution to the ever increasing need for infrastructure capital. This is probably because current owners of infrastructure typically employ the “fixed” pricing model in implementing IS. This research investigated the applicability of Dynamic Pricing (DP) to Ghana’s Telecom Infrastructure Market. DP involves price discrimination over the time dimension and is likely to be a more useful pricing strategy compared to fixed pricing. The study adopted mainly exploratory and descriptive analysis as well as a combination of qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches. Purposive sampling and simple random techniques were used in selection and administering of questionnaires to employees and subscribers of Telecom infrastructure companies from some selected regions in Ghana. The findings of the research identified challenges facing the current “fixed” pricing model, which include surplus inventory, inability to attract new customers and insecurity. The research also confirmed that the market is made up of a variety of customers. They include customers that buy: at an initial full price, when discounted price is sufficiently low, when price is anticipated to remain the same for the entire period and when prices can be bargained. The study also finds that “dynamic Pricing” can boost revenues and it is also the most likely effective strategy for Ghana’s Telecom Infrastructure market.

Keywords:
Dynamic pricing, Infrastructure sharing, fixed pricing, price discrimination, Ghana telecom sector.


References:

1.        Asthana, S. (2012) “Telecom tower infra status will benefit only a new player” The Business Standard, October 12, 2012. Available from <http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/-b-shishir-asthana-b-telecom-tower-infra-status-will-benefit-only-a-new-player-112101200666_1.html><Accessed on 5th February, 2012>
2.        Government of Ghana, ministry of communications (2004). “National Communication policy”, 2004, pp.21

3.        Krugman, Paul R.; Maurice Obstfeld (2003). "Chapter 6: Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition and International Trade". International Economics - Theory and Policy (6th ed.). p. 142.

4.        Frank, Robert H. (2010): Microeconomics and Behavior, 8th Ed., McGraw-Hill Irwin, pp. 391-392

5.        Kyle Y. Lin (2005). Dynamic pricing with real-time demand learning. European Journal of Operational Research 174(2006) 522-538

6.        Sheshinski. E. And Weiss. Y. (1977). “Inflation and costs of price adjustment”. Review of Economics Studies, vol. 44, June, pp.287-303.

7.        Arvind Sahay(2007): How to Reap Higher Profits with Dynamic Pricing. Vol. 48 No. 4, MIT Sloan Management Review

8.        Murphy. J. and Murphy. L.(1994). Bandwidth allocation by pricing in ATM networks. Technical Report. Dublin City University.

9.        DaSilva, L.A.(2000). Pricing for QoS-enabled networks: A survey. IEEE Communication Surveys (2nd Quarterly), 3 (2), 2-8

10.     Falkner. M., Devetsikiotis. M., and Lambadaris.I. (2000). An overview of pricing concepts for broadband IP networks. IEEE Communication Surveys (2nd Quarterly), 3(2), 9-20.

11.     Walrand. J., and Varaiya. P. (2000). High-performance Communication Networks (2nd ed.). Sn Francisco, CA: Morgan-Kaufmann

12.     CSMG (2010) Available at broadband IP networks. IEEE Communication Surveys (2nd Quarterly),3(2),9-20. [Online]<http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/wla/annexes/csmg.pdf<Accessed on 26th January, 2013>

13.     Asthana (2012) [online] <http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/-b-shishir-asthana-b-telecom-tower-infra-status-will-benefit-only-a-new-player-112101200666_1.html><Accessed on 5th February, 2012>

14.     Inder Bajaj (2013).Strong Regulation Critical for Infrastructure Sharing in Telecoms Sector[Online] <http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=111879:strong-regulation-critical-for-infrastructure-sharing-in-telecoms-sector-says-bajaj&catid=55:compulife&Itemid=391> <Accessed on 5th February, 2013>

15.     Nicolas Vincent and Kleschchelskiv, Isaac, (2007), “Market share and price rigidity”, mimeo

16.     Cachon, G.P., Swinney, R., (2009). Purchasing, Pricing, and Quick Response in the Presence of Strategic Customers. Manage. Sci. 55(3), 497-511

17.     Silverstein, Michael J., John Butman (2006). Treasure Hunt: Inside the Mind of the New Consumer. Portfolio.

18.     Rozhon, Tracie. (2004). Worried merchants throw discounts at shoppers. The New York Times.

19.     Holak. S. L., Lehmann, D.R., Sultan, F., (1987). The role of expectations in the adoption of innovative consumer durables: Some preliminary evidence. J. Retailing 63(3), 243-259

20.     Besanko, David, Wayne L. Winston (1990). Optimal price skimming by a monopolist facing rational consumers. Management Science 36(5) 555.567

21.     Yin, R., Aviv, Y., A. Pazgal, C. S. Tang. 2008. Optimal Markdown Pricing: Implications of Inventory Display Formats in the Presence of Strategic Customers.

22.     Lazear, E.P., (1986). Retail Pricing and Clearance Sales. Amer. Econ. Rev. 76(1), 14-32

23.     Chintagunta, P.K., V.R., (1996). Pricing Strategies in a dynamic duopoly: A differential game model. Manage.Sci.42 (11), 1501-1514

24.     Fudenberg, D and J Tirole(1985) “Preemption and Rent Equalisation of New Technology,” The Review of Economics Studies 52:382-401.\
25.     Huisman, KJM and PM Kort(1999), “Effects of Strategic Interactions on the Option Value of Waiting, “working paper, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
26.     Dana, J.D., (1998). Advance-Purchase Discount and Price Discrimination in competitive markets. J. Polit. Economy 106(2), 395-422

27.     Lin, K.Y., Sidbari, S.Y., (2009). Dynamic price competition with discrete customer choice. Europ. J. Operational Res. 197, 969-980

28.     Xu, X., Hopp. W.J.(2006). A monopolistic and oligopolistic stochastic flow revenue management model. Operations Res.54 (6), 1098-1109.

29.     Levin. Y., McGill. J., Nediak. M., (2009). Dynamic pricing: Oligopoly and strategic consumers. Manage.Sci. 55(1), 32-46

30.     Josee Bloemer and Ko de Ruyter (1999). Customer Loyalty in High and Low Involvement Service Settings: The Moderating Impact of Positive Emotions [Online] Available from:<http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1362/026725799784870388><Accessed on 5th February>

31.     RP McAfee and V te Velde(2004). Manuscript, California Institute of Technology.

32.     Ramarao Diseraju and Stephen M. Shugan(1999).Strategic Service Pricing and Yield Management. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 63 No. 1, Page 44-46,

33.     Courcoubetis. C., Siris. V. A. And Stamoulis, G.(1996). Integration of pricing and flow control for available bit rate services in ATM networks. Proceedings of IEEE globecom. London. UK. 1996(PP. 644-648)

34.     Kelly, F. (1997). “Charging and Rate Control for Elastic Traffic” European Trans. Telecommunications” 8, 33-37.

35.     Kelly,F. A.K. Maulloo, and D.K.H. Tan.(1998).”Rate Control for Communication Network: Shadow Prices, Proportional Fairness, and Stability.” Journal of the Operational Research Society 49, 237-252

36.     Low. S.H. and D.E. Lapsley.(1999). “Optimization Flow Control I: Basic Algorithm and Convergence.” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 7, 961-874

37.     Jan-Arild Audestad, Alexei A. Gaivoronski and Adrian Werner.(2006). Extendind the stochastic programming framework for the modelling of several decision makers: pricing and competition in the telecommunication sector. Ann Oper Res(2006)142:19-39

38.     Available from: http://ghanaian-chronicle.com/vodafone-introduces-new-pay-as-you-go-tariff-structure/ <Accessed on 2nd February, 2013>

39.     W.Zhao and Y.-S.Zheng,(2000) “Optimal dynamic pricing of perishable assets with non homogeneous demand,”Management Science, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 375–388, 2000.

40.     A. S¸en and A. X. Zhang,(2009) “Style goods pricing with demand learning,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 196,no. 3, pp. 1058–1075, 2009.

41.     O. Besbes and A. Zeevi,(2009) “Dynamic pricing without knowing the demand function: risk bounds and near–optimal algorithms,” Operations Research, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1407–1420, 2009.

42.     G. Gallego and G. van Ryzin, “A multiproduct dynamic pricing problem and its applications to network yield management,” Operations Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 24–41, 1997.

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15.

Authors:

M. D. Pasarkar, S. B. Thakre

Paper Title:

Deformation of CAD Surface Models Using Programming Approach: A Review

Abstract: CAD models especially surface models are basically not easy to design and edit with 2- D based interfaces due to their three dimensional nature. Many researchers have presented their work on techniques for deformation of CAD surface models. Achieving greater control on the shape of deformation of surface models is thus a need. Many techniques are numerically not that much efficient and deforming complex surface models in real time is thus a difficult task. An effort is made here to review papers based on deformation of CAD surface models critically and thus provide solution to these complex problem. In this context model gains specific importance as it not only help in learning the factors associated with it but also will provide a direction for improvements. This paper makes an attempt to study various techniques to deform surface model in real time. The primary aim of this paper is to understand and enhance the important aspects. Thirteen models are reviewed in this paper. Each of them is representative of a different conceptual view about deformations. The organization of this paper is as follows: initially after highlighting the need for the present study, a generalized framework of the study is presented. This is followed by a brief discussion and a critical appraisal. Finally the agenda for future research is spelt out.

Keywords:
CAD: Computer Aided Design.


References:

1.        Jonathan M. Cohen etal, “An Interface for Sketching 3D Curves” 1999 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics Atlanta GAUSA , pp-17-21.
2.        Barry Fowler etal, “Constraint-Based Curve Manipulation” IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, September 1993, pp-43-49.

3.        William M Hsu,’ “Direct Manipulation of Free-Form Deformations” Computer Graphics, 26,2, July 1992, pp-177-184.

4.        Ravin Balkrishan etal, “Exploring Interactive Curve and Surface Manipulation Using a Bend and Twist Sensitive Input Strip” 1999 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, Atlanta GAUSA,pp- 111- 118.

5.        William Welch and Andrew Witkin, “Variational Surface Modeling”.

6.        Ali Nahvi etal, “Haptic Manipulation of Virtual Mechanisms from Mechanical CAD Designs” Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Robotics& Automation Leuven, Belgium. May 1998, pp – 375-380.

7.        X. Liu etal, “Manipulation of CAD surface models with haptics based on shape control functions” ELSEVIER, Computer-Aided Design 37 (2005) 1447–1458.

8.        K. A. Awan, “Generation of CAD Surfaces by using Cubic Spline Curves”.

9.        Lizhuang Ma, “Surface Deformation Using the Sensor Glove”.

10.     I. Juhasz, “Constrained shape modification of cubic B-spline curves by means of knots” ELSEVIER, Computer-Aided Design 36 (2004) 437–445.

11.     Abdul Rahman Abdullah , “learning nurbs through s-cad”Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 10 No. 1, June 1997, pp. 81-85

12.     Tao Ju, “1 eurographics 2003”

13.     XU Li , “Shape Modification of Bézier Curves by Constrained Optimization” 2002 Journal of Software, Vol.13, No.6, pp-1069-1074.


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16.

Authors:

Rushikesh T. Bankar, Rudra Prasad Patra, Arjun Choudhari, Gaurav Jasutkar

Paper Title:

CBIR Representation in Terms of Rotation Invariant Texture using LBP Variance

Abstract: Local rotation invariant feature extraction has been widely used in texture classification.. This paper proposes an alternative hybrid scheme, using LBP distribution, we first estimate the principal orientations of the texture image and then use them to align LBP histograms. Then the aligned LBP histograms were in turn used to measure different images from the database. A new texture descriptor, LBP variance (LBPV), is proposed to characterize the local contrast information into the one-dimensional LBP histogram. For more accurate result we propose a method to reduce feature dimensions using Euclidian Distance measurement. The experimental results of the  databases show that the proposed LBPV operator can achieve significant Improvement, sometimes more than 10% in terms of classification point of view, over traditional locally rotation invariant LBP method.

Keywords:
LBP distribution, LBPV operator, Euclidian Distance measurement. 


References:

1.        Nidhi, Shilpa Mehta,“Review of Existing Techniques of Lung Nodule Cancer Detection and Existing Algorithms That Can Be Used For Efficient Detection In Future” International Journal of Emerging Science and Engineering (IJESE) ISSN: 2319–6378, Volume-2, Issue-4, February 2014.
2.        “LBPV for Newborn Personal Recognition  System” proposed by S. Malini, R. Gayathri, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications      ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 3, Issue 6, Dec 2013, pp. 2076-2081.

3.        “Content Based Image Retrieval: A Survey”,proposed by Malvan, Shrikant. B. Kale,  Dr. S.V. Dudul, International journal of Data Modelling and Knowledge Management Vol. 3No.1 (January-June, 2013).

4.        G. Deep, L. Kaur, and S. Gupta,Chandigarh Engg. College, Landran-140307, Mohali, India. PunjabiUniversity /Department of CE, UCOE, Patiala, India Panjab University/Department of CSE,UIET, Chandigarh, India E-mail: {mahal2k8, savita2k8@yahoo.com}, “Lung Nodule Segmentation in CT Images using  Rotation Invariant Local Binary Pattern” ACEEE International Journal on Signal & Image Processing, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 2013.

5.        “Rotation-Invariant Image and Video DescriptionWith Local Binary Pattern Features”, proposed by Timo Ahonen, Guoying Zhao,  Jiří Matas, and Matti Pietikäinen, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 21,NO. 4, APRIL 2012.

6.        “Combination of Morphological, Local Binary Pattern Variance and Color Moments Features for Indonesian Medicinal Plants Identification”proposed by Yeni Herdiyeni, Mayanda Mega Santoni, ICACSIS 2012.

7.        “Rotation invariant  texture classification using LBP variance (LBPV) with global matching”, proposed by Zhenhua Guo, Lei Zhang, David Zhang, Pattern Recognition 43 (2010) 706–719.

8.        “A naïve relevance feedback model for content-based image retrieval using multiple similarity measures”, proposed by Pattern Recognition 43 (2010) 619 – 629.

9.        “ Interactive localized content based image retrieval with multiple-instance active learning”, proposed by D.Zhanga, Z. Shib, C. Zhanga, F, Wanga,Pattern Recognition, vol. 43,pp. 478 – 484, 2010.

10.     “View point invariant texture description  using fractal analysis”, proposed by H. Ji, Xu, and C. Fermüller, IJCV, vol. 83,  pp. 85-100, 2009.

11.     “Multiple-instance content-based image retrieval employing isometric embedded similarity measure”,proposed by Shuenn-Ren Cheng, John Y. Chianga, Pattern
Recognition, vol, 42 (2009) 158 – 166.

12.     “Image retrieval based on the texton co-occurrence matrix”, proposed by Guang-Hai Liu, Jing-Yu Yang, Pattern Recognition 41 (2008) 3521 – 3527.

13.     ”Retrieval of textured images through the useof quantization and modal Analysis” proposed by Celia A. Zorzo Barcelos1, Marcio J.R. Ferreira, Mylene L. Rodrigues, Pattern Recognition 40 (2007) 1195 – 1206.


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17.

Authors:

Dimple Gogoi, Ratul Ch. Rajkhowa, A. K. Handique

Paper Title:

Nutritive Values of Some Non-Conventional Leafy Vegetables of Ethnic Sources from Nagaland,      N.E. India

Abstract: Major nutritional components as well as calorific values were estimated for nine non- conventional wild leafy vegetables traditionally used by various tribal communities of Nagaland. Different plant types were covered  in the study viz herb - Eryngium  foetidum, Polygonum microcephalum; shrub - Gentum gnemon, Rhynhotechum  ellipticum, Zanthoxylum oxyphylum, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, Skimmia arborescens, Lycianthus pachypetala and tree - Rhus semialata. Crude protein contents were very impressive in the range of 11.65% in S. arborescens to 28.54% in E.  foetidumI. All the species were very rich in total mineral in the form of ash content which varies from 7.0% in P. microcephalum to 19.69% in S. arborescens. Crude fibre were found in apparently highamount and varied from 12.50% in Z. oxyphylum to 26.59% in G.  gnemon. Total carbohydrate and lipid content were comparatively low with limited variability. Calorific value exhibited wide variability n the range of 98.21 K cal/100 gm in S. arborescens to 168.44 K cal/100gm in G. gnemon

Keywords:
Non-conventional food plants, crude protein, carbohydrate, lipid, crude fibre, ash content, calorific value.


References:

1.        AOAC, (1970). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 11th Ed. Washington DC.
2.        Bhag Mal (1990). Under-utilised plants: A treasure house unexplored. Indian farming 40; 19-24

3.        Clegg, K. M, (1956). The application of anthrone reagent to the estimation of starch in cereals .J. Food Sci. Agric. 7; 40-44

4.        Gopalan, C., Rama Sastri, B.V and Balasubramanian, S. C, (1989) Nutritive values of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition , Hyderabad  p. 25-26 and 47-48

5.        Handique, A.K (1993) Free amino acid content of some non –conventional leafy vegetables. Crop Reseach 6(1);189-193```

6.        Handique, A.K., (2003)a  Nutritive values of five wild edible ferns of  North  East  India – Underutilised plant genetic resources, Indian J. Plant Genetic Resour. 16(3); 26-28.

7.        Handique, A.K., (2003)b  Nutritive values of some non-conventional leafy vegetables from ethnic sources of, North  East  India. Crop. Res. 26(2); 361-364.

8.        Juliano, B O., Bautista, G.M., Lugay, J. C and Reyes, A.C (1964) Studies on the physio-chemical properties of rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 12: 131 - 138

9.        Mashelkar, R A (2001)     Intellectual property right and the third world. Curr. Sci. 81(8); 955 – 965

10.     Panse, U.G and Skhatme, P.V (1978)   In “Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers” ICAR, New Delhi.

11.     Sadasivam, S and Manikam, A., (1996). Biochemical Methods for Agricultural Sciences, Wiley Esatern Ltd., New Delhi.

12.     Sherman, H C (1952) Chemistry of Food and Nutrition. The MacMilan Company, New York.

13.     Srivastava ,G.P., (1990) Leaf protein: A future food source for human nutrition .Indian Farming 40;20-23


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18.

Authors:

Sneha P. Gadpayle, Rashmi N. Baxi

Paper Title:

Electric Melting Furnace - A Review

Abstract: Electric furnace is used for heating purpose in various industrial production processes. Electric furnaces are used where more accurate temperature control is required. Melting of metals, glass, and other materials has been a vital manufacturing process for several thousand years, producing molten liquids that can be poured and solidified into useful shapes. Although the basic process continues to be the same, the utility of cast products has come a long way. The productions of metal in foundries and in all human lives have become a general practice.  Different melting techniques are in practice with different energy sources. This topic deals principally with the mechanical and electrical requirements for furnace production. The electrical aspect deals with the furnace power requirement to make it functional. A blast furnace performs basic melting (of iron ore) operation to get pig iron, cupola furnace is used for getting cast iron and an electric arc furnace is used for re-melting steel.

Keywords:
Electric heating, mechanical components, electrical components, melting, heat distribution.


References:

1.        W.Trinks, John Wiley and Sons Inc, “Industrial Furnaces”   (Vol-2) Newyork,1925.
2.        K. C. Bala, “ Design Analysis of an Electric Induction Furnace for Melting Aluminum Scrap ”, Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, 2005;

3.        Vivek R. Gandhewar, Satish V. Bansod, Atul B.Borade, "Induction Furnace -  A Review", International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol.3 (4), 2011, 277-284;

4.        "Indirect Resistance Heating ", EPRl Center  for  Materials  Fabrication , Vol.3, 1994;

5.        Ilori, B.O., “Design of Electric Arc Furnace”, B. Eng Thesis; Mechanical Engineering Department; Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria,1991.

6.        Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry by BCS, Incorporated, November 2005;

7.        Benoit Boulet, Gino Lalli, Mark Ajersch, "Modeling and Control of an Electric Arc Furnace" Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Denver, Colorado June 4-6, 2003;

8.        The Development Commissioner (SSI), Ministry of SSI,    “Electric Furnace”, Small Scale Industries, Electrical And  Electronics Division,7th Fioor, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi- 110011;


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19.

Authors:

H. Y. Kaundanyapure, P. J. Salunke, N. G. Gore

Paper Title:

Infinite Beams on Elastic Foundation by Using Meshfree Method

Abstract: The present studies emphasis the analysis of beam for elastic foundation using the Element Free Galerkine Method (EFGM). The attempt was made to provide a simple model for beams on elastic foundation using Mesh Free Technique, called as Element Free Galerkine Method which does not rely on the mesh.  The EFGM presented in the study employs generalized Method of Least Square (MLS), which is used to construct shape function based on the set of nodes. The Discrete system equation are derived from the variation form of system equation.  A FORTRAN and MATLAB program is developed and numerical example of finite and infinite beams on elastic foundation are presented.  Numerical examples are provided to study the convergence and the efficiency of the method.

Keywords:
Elastic foundation, Element Free Galerkine Method (EFGM), beams on elastic foundation, Mesh Free Technique and Method of Least Square interpolation.


References:

1.        B. Nyroles, G. Touzot and P. Villion, "Generalizing the finite element method: diffuse approximation and diffuse elements," Computational Mechanics, vol. 10, pp. 307-318, 1992.
2.        T. Belytschko, Y. Y. Lu and L. Gu, "Element-free Galerkin Methods," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (IJNME), vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 229-256, 1994 .

3.        J. S. Chen, C. T. Wu, S. Yoon and Y. You, "A stabilized conforming nodal integration for Galerkin mesh-free methods," International Journal For Numerical Methods In Engineering, vol. 50, pp. 435-466, 2001.

4.        N. V. Sunitha, G. R. Dodagoudar and B. N. Rao, "Element free Galerkin method for beams on elastic foundation," Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 181-188, 2008.

5.        W. Zhang, M. Xia and L. Liu, "Meshfree radial point interpolation method and its application for two-dimensional elastic problem," 3rd International Conference on Innovative Computing Information and Control, pp. 406-408, 2008.

6.        G. R. Liu and X. L. Chen, "A mesh-free method for static and free vibration analyses of thin plates of complicated shape," Journal of Sound and vibration, vol. 241, No. 5, pp. 839-855, 2001.

7.        S. Fernandez-Mendez, A. Huerta, "Imposing essential boundary conditions in mesh-free methods," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., vol. 193, pp. 1257–1275, 2004.

8.        S. M. Binesh, N. Hataf and A. Ghahramani, "Elasto-plastic analysis of reinforced soils using mesh-free method," Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 215, pp. 4406–4421, 2010. 

9.        M. Hetenyi, Beams on Elastic Foundation, The University of Michigan Press, Michigan, 1958.

10.     G. R. Liu and Y. T. Gu, An Introduction to Meshfree Methods and Their Programming, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 2005.


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20.

Authors:

Iuliana Florentina GHEORGHE, Ion BARBU

Paper Title:

Green Infrastructure - An Important Factor in the Preservation and Use of Biodiversity to Reduce Diffuse Pollution and Production of Biomass

Abstract: Presently the European Union countries are confronted with the need for development, the increase of living standards involving an increased use of resources and energy, and also an increase of pollution. Natural and semi-natural ecosystems are the main sources in the production of resources and energy generation. With the increase in the amount of required resources and energy the human pressure exerted on ecosystems and biodiversity is higher, which implies the need for preservation of these species and ecosystems. Residues arising from the use of resources that emphasize forms of pollution accentuate the anthropogenic pressure on natural capital. Keeping a mosaic structure is an ideal solution to harmonize the development of society with nature conservation. A green infrastructure with lakes and rivers, wetlands, different types of forest, pastures, shrubs including different types of crops, represents the ideal structure to meet both goals.

Keywords:
Type of vegetations, Primary production and productivity, C stocks, N stocks, C and N uptake.


References:

1.        Moreira, F.; Pinto, M. J.; Henriques, I. and Marques, T., 2005, 'The importantance of low-intensity farming Systems for fauna, flora and habitats protected under the European 'Birds' and 'Habitats' Directives: Is agriculture Essentials for preserving biodiversity in the Mediterranean region?' In: Burk, A.R. (ed.), Trends in Biodiversity Research. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp. 117–145.
2.        McCracken, D.; Klockenbring, C.; Zdanowicz, A. and Baldock, D., 2005. Agricultural biodiversity – issues to be aware of within MEACAP. Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Brussels.

3.        Biala, K.; Terres, J.-M.; Pointereau, P. and Paracchini, M.L. (eds.), 2008. Low Input Farming Systems: an Opportunity to Develop Sustainable Agriculture. Proceedings of the JRC Summer University Ranco, 2-5 July 2007. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. European Communities, Luxembourg.

4.        Firbank, L. G., 2005. 'Striking a new balance between agricultural production and biodiversity.'Annals of Applied Biology 146(2): 163–175.
5.        Le Roux, X.; Barbault, R.; Baudry, J.; Burel, F.; Doussan, I.; Garnier, E.; Herzog, F.; Lavorel, S.; Lifran, R.; Roger-Estrade, J.; Sarthou, J.P, and M. Trommetter (eds.), 2008. Agriculture and biodiversity. Benefiting from synergies. National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), Paris.
6.        Cooper, T.; Hart, K. and Baldock, D., 2009. Provision of Public Goods through Agriculture in the European Union. Institute for European Environmental Policy, Brussels.

7.        Gheorghe I.F. Fitocenologie şi  Vegetaţia României, 2008. Ed. Didactică şi Pedagogică

8.         McClaugherty C.A., Aber J.D., Melillo J.M., 1982. The role of fine root in the organic matter and nitrogen budgets of two forested ecosystems, Ecology 63: 1481-1490.

9.        Whittaker, R.H., 1978, The Braun-Blanquet approach. Classification of Plant Communities, Junk, The Hague.

10.     Whittaker, R.H. and Marks, P.L., 1993, Methods of assessing terrestrial productivity in Leith, H. and Whittaker, R.H. (eds) Primary productivity of the Biosphere, Spinger Verlag, New York

11.     Whittaker, R.H. and Woodwell, G.M., 1968, Dimension and production relations of trees and shrubs in the Brookhaven forest. New York, Ecol. 56: 1 - 25, Action plan for protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates coming from agricultural sources”, 2008, report of Ministries of Environment

12.     Mitsch W.J., 1991, Estimating primary productivity of forested wetland communities in different hydrologic landscapes. Landscape ecology 5:75-92.

13.      Mihaela Oprina Pavelescu “The critical mechanisms involved in the control soil flows of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in wide ecotonal areas”, PhD thesis, 2007

14.     Ţopa, S., Gheorghe, I. F., Vădineanu, A., 2000. Nutrient storage in riparian vegetation in the lower Danube floodplain. Internat. Assoc. Danube Res., 33, 143-148, Osijek. EEA,  2006. High nature value farmland. Characteristics, trends and policy challenges. EEA report No 1/2004. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. EEA, 2009 a. Distribution and targeting of the CAP budget from a biodiversity perspective. EEA Technical report No 12/2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. EC, 2003. CAP reform – a long-term perspective for sustainable agriculture. European Commission, Brussels. EC, 2008. Wildlife and Sustainable Farming Initiative. Species report – Outs scopes. European Commission, Brussels. EC, 2009 a. Provision of public goods through agriculture in the European Union. National Institute of Statistics “National Statistical Yearbook”, 2007


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