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Volume-2 Issue-8: Published on June 25, 2014
Volume-2 Issue-8: Published on June 25, 2014

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Volume-2 Issue-8, June 2014, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



K.J.S Lorraine, K.Bala Teja, G. Durga Devi, K.Harika

Paper Title:

Comparative Analysis of Various Edge Detection Techniques and Cancer Cell Detection using Sobel Algorithm

Abstract:  Image Edge detection significantly reduces the amount of data and filters out useless information, while preserving the important structural properties in an image. Since edge detection is in the forefront of image processing for object detection, it is crucial to have a good understanding of edge detection algorithms. In this paper, the comparative analysis of various Image Edge Detection techniques has been presented. It has been shown that the canny edge detection algorithm performs better than all these algorithms under almost all scenarios. However, it has been observed that under noisy conditions Sobel algorithm detect edges more clearly when compared to Canny. It has been also observed that Canny edge detection algorithm is computationally more expensive compared to Sobel, Prewitt and Robert’s algorithms. Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Hence, it is necessary to detect the edges of cancer cells so that they can be easily subjected to radiation therapy without affecting the other blood cells. So, in this paper Sobel & Canny algorithms have been used to detect the boundaries of cancer cells. Sobel algorithm has detected the edges of cancer cells more clearly compared to Canny algorithm.

 Kernels, Gradient, Roberts, Sobel, Prewitt, Canny.


1.    Rafael c. Gonzalez and richard e. Woods “Digital Image Processing”, Third Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall.
2.    Ireyuwa. E. Igbinosa (2013), “Comparison of Edge Detection Technique in Image Processing Techniques”, International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ISSN 2306-708X Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2013.

3.    Pooja Sharma, Gurpreet Singh, Amandeep Kaur (2013), “Different Techniques Of Edge Detection In Digital Image Processing”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013.

4.    Ravi S, A M Khan (2012), “Operators Used In Edge Detection Computation: A Case Study”, International International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11.

5.    Mr. Manoj K.Vairalkar , Prof. S.U.Nimbhorkar, “ Edge Detection of Images Using Sobel Operator”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering , ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2012.




Gursewak Singh, Rajni Bedi

Paper Title:

A Survey of Various Attacks and Their Security Mechanisms in Wireless Sensor Network

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology with the purpose of demonstrating immense promise for various innovative applications such as traffic surveillance, building,   smart homes, habitat monitoring and many more scenarios. The sensing technology joint with dispensation control and wireless communication makes it beneficial for being exploited excess in future. The addition of wireless communication technology as well acquires a variety of security threats. The intention of this paper is to examine the security related problems and challenges in wireless sensor networks. This paper discusses a broad diversity of attacks in wireless sensor network and their classification mechanisms and different security schemes available to handle them as well as the challenges faced.

 Wireless Sensor network, Security schemes, Attacks


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2.       F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor  networks" Communications Magazine,IEEE, vol. 40, pp. 102-114, 2002.

3.       Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal, "Wireless sensor network survey," Computer Networks,Elsevier, vol. 52, pp. 2292-2330, 2008.

4.       D. Culler, D. Estrin, M.Srivastava, "Overview of Sensor Networks," Computer Magazine,IEEE, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 41-49, August 2004.

5.       S. Misra et al. (eds.), Guide to Wireless Sensor Networks, Computer Communications and Networks,DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84882-218-4 4, Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

6.       Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Hyung-Woo Lee “Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges” ISBN 89-5519-129-4, ICACT2006

7.       J.N.Al-Karaki, Raza Ul-Mustafa, Ahmed E. Kamal, "Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks -Exact and Approximate Algorithms," in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 2004, pp. 241-245.

8.       A.W. Krings Z. (Sam) Ma, "Bio-Inspired Computing and Communication in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc Networks,Elsevier, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 742-755 , June 2009.

9.       Karlof, C. and Wagner, D., “Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: Attacks and countermeasures”, Elsevier's Ad Hoc Network Journal,Special Issue on Sensor Network Applications and Protocols, September2003, pp. 293-315.

10.    Karlof, C., Sastry, N., and Wagner, D., “TinySec: a link layer security architecture for wireless sensor networks”, Proc. of the 2nd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, Baltimore, MD,USA, 2004, pp. 162 – 175.

11.    Newsome, J., Shi, E., Song, D, and Perrig, A, “The sybil attack in sensor networks: analysis & defenses”, Proc. of the third international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks, ACM, 2004,pp. 259 – 268.

12.    Hamid, M. A., Rashid, M-O., and Hong, C. S., “Routing Security in Sensor Network: Hello Flood Attack and Defense”, to appear in IEEEICNEWS 2006, 2-4 January, Dhaka.

13.    Karakehayov, Z., "Using REWARD to detect team black-hole attacks in wireless sensor networks", in Workshop on Real-World Wireless SensorNetworks (REALWSN'05), 20-21 June, 2005, Stockholm, Sweden.

14.    Slijepcevic, S., Potkonjak, M., Tsiatsis, V., Zimbeck, S., and Srivastava, M.B., “On communication security in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks”, 11th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, 2002, 10-12 June 2002, pp.139 – 144

15.    Kulkarni, S. S., Gouda, M. G., and Arora, A., “Secret instantiation in adhoc networks,” Special Issue of Elsevier Journal of Computer Communications on Dependable Wireless Sensor Networks, May 2005, pp. 1–15.

16.    Karakehayov, Z., "Using REWARD to detect team black-hole attacks in wireless sensor networks", in Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN'05), 20-21 June, 2005, Stockholm, Sweden.




Vishal Vaidya, P.P. Hujare

Paper Title:

Optimization of Sound Pressure Level of Air Intake System by using GT-Power

Abstract:  This paper focuses on the use of GT Power software for optimizing the sound pressure level (SPL) of an air intake system. There are different ways for optimizing the sound pressure level and that can be explored by using the capabilities of the GT Power software. One of the ways for sound pressure level reduction is with increase in transmission loss. This papers talk about the resonator size determination to reduce the SPL. To determine exact volume calculation GT-Power software is used.

 Air intake system, Resonator, GT Power Acoustics Simulation


1.    Dzaidin “Optimal design of Automobile exhaust system using GT-Power” IJMME), Vol. 2 (2007), No. 1, 40-47.
2.    Dr. –Ing. Youssef Mochkaai, “GT-POWER as a tool for acoustic and dynamic optimization of exhaust systems “GT-SUIT User Conference 2009

3.    Alexey Vdovin “Cooling performance simulations in GT-Suite”Chalmers University Göteborg, Sweden 2010

4.    Selamet, P. M. Radavich, N. S. Dickey and J. M. Novak, “Circular concentric Helmholtz resonator”, J. Acoust. Soc.Am.,

5.    N. S. Dickey and A. Selamet, “Helmholtz resonators: onedimensional limit for small cavity length-to-diameter ratios”, J.Sound Vib., 195, 512–517, (1996).

6.    In Jung,Ul-Seuk Ko,Ji-Min Lim “Development of a Low Noise Intake System Using Non-Helmholtz Type Resonator” 

7.    Haluk Erol and Cem Meriç “Application of resonators and a side branch duct with an expansion chamber for broad band noise control “




Jitendra Kumar Gothwal, Ram Singh

Paper Title:

Applying Information Hiding into Fingerprint Verification System using Fragile Watermarking Technique

Abstract:   Protection of biometric data & templates is gaining interest and crucial issue for the security of biometric systems. Digital media in these recent days has led to an increase of digital piracy and tampering especially for biometric identification system. Digital watermarking techniques are used to authenticate a source that has been subjected to potential tempering attacks. These attacks are intended to either circumvent the security afforded by the system or to deter the normal functioning of the system. Thus a protective scheme is needed which will preserve fidelity and prevent alterations. This research work had proposed an architectural framework that will apply information hiding method into biometric identification system. A Fragile image watermarking technique has been used to hide additional information into fingerprint images by changing the least significant bit value of a random chosen pixel of the image. The embedded information can be extracted without referencing to the original image. This proposed framework is to be applied in the real environment to authenticate the digital images in the database of fingerprint biometric system so that they can secured from any unwanted attacks such as intention to fraud fingerprint template. The results show that the fingerprint images are not being affected when the watermarking method is implemented and the performance of the fingerprint authentication system is also not affected when the watermarked fingerprint images are used in the system. This study can be use for image authentication especially to detect whether the image has been tampered by image processing such as noise addition and blurring

 Biometrics, Fingerprint, Information hiding, Fragile watermarking, Authentication systems


1.          S.Bruce, “Inside risks: the uses and abuses of biometrics,” Communications of the ACM, Aug. 1999.
2.          K. R. Geruta,” Information Hiding on Wavelet Based Schemes under Consideration of Jpeg2000”, University of Rostock, Department of Computer Science, Institute of Computer Graphics, Volume 42, Issue 8, 2000.

3.          B. Pfitzmann, “Information Hiding Terminology,” Proc. First Int’l Workshop Information Hiding, Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 1,174, Springer-Versa, Berlin, 1996, pp. 347-356.

4.          K. Rene Geruta,”Information Hiding on Wavelet Based Schemes under Consideration of Jpeg2000”, University of Rostock, Department of Computer Science, Institute of Computer Graphics, 2001.

5.          P.M. George, A.H. Albert, S.G. Laszlo, “Peak Signal to Noise Ratio Performance Comparison of JPEG and JPEG2OOO for Various Medical Image Modalities.” Symposium on Computer Applications, 2000.

6.          C. K Yang and C. S. Huang ,"A Novel Watermarking Techniques For Tampering Detection in Digital images," Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis 3, 2004 , pp. 1-12.

7.          S. Bounkong, B.Toch, D.Saad and D. Lowe, “ICA for Watermarking Digital Images”, Journal of Machine Learning Research, 2003, pp. 1471-1498.

8.          K. Jain and U. Uludag, “Hiding biometric data”, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine. Intelligence, 25, No. 11, 2003. Pp. 1493-1498.

9.          M.A. Suhail and M.S. Obaidat, “Digital Watermarking-based DCT and JPEG model”, IEEE Trans. On Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 52, No. 5, October 2003.

10.       A.K.Jain, A. Ross, and U.Uludag, “Biometrics Template security: Challenges and solutions” in Proc. of European Signal Processing Conference, September 2005.

11.       N. Johnson and S. Jajodia, “: Exploring Steganography Seeing the Unseen", IEEE Computer, 1998, pp. 26-34.

12.       Elliott, S.J.; Massie, S.A.; Sutton, M.J. “The Perception of Biometric Technology: A Survey” Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, 2007 IEEE Workshop on Volume, Issue, 7-8 June 2007 Page(s): 259 – 264.

13.       N. K. Ratha, J. Connell, R. M. Bolle, and S. Chikkerur, ”Cancelable Biometrics: A Case Study in Fingerprints,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2006), 20-24 August 2006, Hong Kong, China. ICPR (4), 2006, pp. 370-373.

14.       U. Uludag, B. Gunsel, and M Dalian "A spatial method for watermarking of fingerprint images" Proc. First Inti. Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Information Systems, Setubal, Portugal, 2001, pp. 26-33.

15.       S. Asha, C. Chellappan, “Authentication of e-learners using multimodal biometric technology” in IEEE- International Symposium on Biometric and Security Technologies, ISBAST 2008,” 23-24th, April 2008 . pp.1 –6.

16.       I.Hazwam,” Fingerprint Template Security, ”Masters thesis, University Utara Malaysia, 2007.

17.       Arakala, J.Jeffers and K.J. Horadam,”Fuzzy Extractors for Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Authentication”, in International Conference on Biometrics, 2007.

18.       N.K.Ratha, J.H.Connell and R.M.Bolle,”An Analysis of Minutiae Matching Strength,” Proceedings of Third International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication,2001, pp. 223-228.

19.       U. Uludag and A.K. Jain, " Attacks on biometric systems: a case study in fingerprints", Proc. SPIE-EI 2004, Security, Seganography and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, pp. 622-633, San Jose, CA, January 18-22, 2004




Surabattina Sunanda, Abdul Rahaman Shaik

Paper Title:

Energy Efficient Coordinated Cooperative Cache Replacement Algorithms for Social Wireless Networks

Abstract:  Cooperative caching is a technique used in  wireless  networks to improve the efficiency of information access by reducing the access latency and bandwidth this paper,we discuss about cooperative caching policies for minimizing electronic content provisioning cost in Social Wireless Networks (SWNET). SWNETs are formed by mobile devices, such as data enabled phones, electronic book readers etc., sharing common interests in electronic content, and physically gathering together in public places. Electronic object caching in such SWNETs are shown to be able to reduce the content provisioning cost which depends heavily on the service and pricing dependences among various stakeholders including content providers (CP), network service providers, and End Consumers (EC).Cache replacement policy plays a significant role in response time reduction by selecting suitable subset of items for eviction from the cache. In addition, this paper suggests some alternative techniques for cache replacement. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on future research directions.

 Data, Caching, Cache Replacement, SWNETs, Cooperative caching, content provisioning, ad hoc networks


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2.       vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 94-107, Jan./Feb. 1999

3.       Denko, M.K., Tian, J.,Cross-Layer Design for Cooperative Caching in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proc .of IEEE

4.       Consumer Communications and Networking Conf( 2008).

5.       L. Yin, G. Cao: Supporting cooperative caching in ad hoc networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 5(1):77-89( 2006).

6.       Chand, N. Joshi R.C., and Misra, M., Efficient Cooperative Caching in Ad Hoc Networks Communication System

7.       Software and Middleware.(2006).

8.       S. Lim, W. C. Lee, G. Cao, C. R. Das: A novel caching scheme for internet based mobile ad hoc networks. Proc .12th

9.       Int. Conf. Computer Comm. Networks (ICCCN 2003), 38-43 ( Oct. 2003).

10.    Narottam Chand, R.C. Joshi and Manoj Misra, "Cooperative Caching Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on

11.    Clusters," International Journal of Wireless Personal Communications special issue on Cooperation in Wireless Networks, Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 41-63, Oct 2007

12.    Li, W., Chan, E., & Chen, D. (2007). Energy- efficient cache replacement policies for cooperative caching in mobile

13.    ad hoc network. In Proceedings of the IEEE WCNC (pp3349–3354).

14.    B. Z heng, J. Xu, and D. L ee. Cache invalidation and replacement strategies for location dependent data in mobile environments,. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 51(10) : 1141–1153, October 2002.

15.    Mary Magdalene Jane.F, Yaser Nouh and R. Nadarajan,“Network Distance Based Cache Replacement Policy for Location-Dependent Data in Mobile Environment”, Proceedings of the 2008 Ninth International Conference on Mobile Data Management Workshops ,IEEE Computer Society Washington,DC,USA,2008.

16.    Kumar, A., Sarje, A.K. and Misra, M. ‘Prioritised Predicted Region based Cache Replacement Policy for location dependent data in mobile environment’, Int. J. Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing , Vol. 5, No. 1, (2010) pp.56–67.

17.    B. Zheng, J. Xu, and D. L. Lee. cache invalidation and replacement strategies for location-dependent data in mobile environments. IEEE Trans. on Comp, 51(10):14–21, 2002.

18.    Q. Ren and M. Dhunham. Using semantic caching to manage location dependent data in mobile computing. Proc. Of ACM/IEEE MobiCom, 99:210–221, 2000.

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