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Volume-2 Issue-6

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Volume-2 Issue-6, April 2014, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.



Shraddha Korde, Bhavik Jethwa, Ranjit Kundaram, B.W. Balkhande

Paper Title:

Embedding Encrypted Data in Video Using Symmetric Key Cryptography

Abstract: Video data hiding is still an important research topic due to the design complexities involved. We propose a new video encrypted data hiding method that makes use of erasure correction capability of repeat accumulate codes and superiority of forbidden zone data hiding as well as DNA cryptography logic is used for encryption and decryption of the data. This paper also proposes a unique cipher text generation procedure as well as a new key generation procedure. DNA cryptography is one of the major concerned areas of computer and data security and a very promising direction in cryptography research. Selective embedding is utilized in the proposed method to determine host signal samples suitable for data hiding. This method also contains a temporal synchronization scheme in order to withstand frame drop and insert attacks. Finally, to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, its implementation is explained and the results are analyzed.

 Cipher text, Data hiding, decryption, encryption, forbidden zone data hiding, key generation, repeat accumulate codes, selective embedding, security.


1.             B. Roy, G. Rakshit, P. Singha, A. Majumder and D. Datta, “An improved Symmetric key cryptography with DNA based strong cipher”, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Tripura Institute of Technology, Narsingarh, Tripura, India.
2.             Ersin Esen and A. Aydin Alatan, “Robust Video Data Hiding Using Forbidden Zone Data Hiding and Selective Embedding” in IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 21, no. 8, august 2011.

3.             Garfinkel Simson, Web Security, Privacy & Commerce, 2nd Edition, O’Reilly Publisher, November 2001.

4.             M. Wu, H. Yu, and B. Liu, “Data hiding in image and video: I. Fundamental issues and solutions,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 685–695, Jun. 2003.

5.             M. Wu, H. Yu, and B. Liu, “Data hiding in image and video: II. Designs and applications,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 696–705, Jun. 2003.

6.             M.M.Mansour,“A turbo-decoding message-passing algorithm for sparse parity-check matrix codes,”IEEE Trans. Signal Process.,vol. 54, no. 11,pp. 4376–4392, Nov. 2006.

7.             A. Sarkar, U. Madhow, S. Chandrasekaran, and B. S. Manjunath, “Adaptive MPEG-2 video data hiding scheme,” in Proc. 9th SPIE Security Steganography Watermarking Multimedia Contents, 2007, pp. 373–376.

8.             K. Solanki, N. Jacobsen, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Robust image-adaptive data hiding using erasure and error correction,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1627–1639,  Dec. 2004.

9.             E. Esen and A. A. Alatan, “Forbidden zone data hiding,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Process., Oct. 2006, pp. 1393–1396.





Mohammed Hussein Baqir

Paper Title:

Development Controller using PC for Generation PWM

Abstract: Design and construction of microcomputer for inverter controlling, this inverter is designed by using power electronics switches type MOSFET. The MOSFET's are controlled by using pulses depending on sampled sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique with frequency ratio changing. Constant voltage to frequency (V/F) ratio is maintained through the program leading to constant flux speed range. The range of inverter output frequency is (0→50 Hz). This inverter output control the 3-ph induction motor speed. 

  MOSFET, (V/F), (O-50Hz).


1.    A.P. Malvino, "Digital computer electronics an introduction to microcomputers" second edition Mc. Graw- Hill Ine. 2008.
2.    M. A.  AL- Taee, "Microprocessor based 3- phase PWM waveform generator" proc. Of 11th Iraq scientific engineering conf. on electrical engineering Baghdad, 1993.

3.    You Lee and Y. Yith Sum, "Adaptive harmonic control in PWM inverters with fluctuating input voltage", IEEE. Trans. Ind. Electron, Vol. IE-33, NO. 1, FEB. 2009.

4.    S. Muruge San, "An overview of electric motor for space application", IEEE. Trans. Ind. Electron. Vol. IECI-28, NO. 4, Nov. 2007.

5.    Bowes, S. R., and Midoun. A, "Microprocessor Implementation of new optimal PWM switching strategies", IEEE. Proc, Vol. 135, Pt.B, NO. 5, Sep. 1988. 

6.    M. Vaarnovisky, "A microcomputer based control signal generator for a three phase switching power inverter",  IEEE transaction on industry application Vol. 19, NO. 2, march 1999.

7.    Intel Corporation, "Microcontroller handbook", 2010.

8.    Mohammed. H. B, "Variable dc input voltage source inverter based on microcontroller" MSc. Thesis, university of technology Baghdad, 2005.





Felix Akpagloh, Stephen E Armah, Osei-Owusu Alexander

Paper Title:

Evaluating The Financial Implication of Power Harmonics on Electricity Corporation of Ghana (ECG)’s Distribution Networks and Customers

Abstract:  The survival and sustainability of businesses, especially in volatile developing country markets, require that businesses frugally manage input cost such as the cost of electric power. However, Power Harmonics (PH) that cause excessive dissipation of energy as heat can raise the cost of electric power for companies and for the power suppliers as well. Unknown to them, many businesses in Ghana may have been exposed to serious financial losses as a result of the presence of power harmonics in the distribution network. Such PH is essentially a negative externality caused by the users of PH producing gadgets and visited on other unsuspecting users of electric power who are essentially bystanders: a classic case of a negative externality.  PH is a major contributor to the poor state of power quality internationally and have been in existence since the first alternating current generator went online more than 100 years ago. This paper presents an analysis of the financial implication of power harmonics in the distribution network of the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) and on customers of the company using a mixed methodology of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The results from the power system monitoring carried out confirm the presence and deleterious effects of power harmonics in the distribution network. Unfortunately, most customers are not aware of the negative effects of power harmonics. Differentiating the effect of PH from other poor power quality issues has cost consequences for most customers.  Analysed results from the power system monitoring carried out shows that more than Gh¢2,396,814.00 ($1,261, 481.00 at an exchange rate ($/Ghc) of 1.9 in 2012) per annum is wasted as heat in the distribution network.  There is therefore the need to introduce punitive measures against the generation of harmonics into the distribution system in order to incentivise the promulgators of PH to internalize the externality. This will ensure the survival and sustainability of businesses in Ghana’s volatile and under-resourced industrial sector.

Keywords: (ECG), PH.


1.       Hamilton Michael, (2005), Presentation on “Power System Harmonics”, http://www.geig.net/dlfiles/MikeHam_HarmonicsPress_GEIG_13072005.pdf. Cited on 15th November, 2012
2.       Rice, D.E, (1986)“Adjustable speed drive and power rectifier harmonic—their effect on power systems components,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., Vol. IA-22, No. 1, pp. 161—177.

3.       ΙΕΕE Task Force, (1985),"The Effects of Power System Harmonics on Power System Equipment and Loads", IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, pp 2555-2563.

4.       Kasmas, N; Drossos, N. Stavropoulos, D. and Papathanassiou, S. (May 2007) “A practical evaluation of distribution network losses due to harmonics” at the 19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Vienna, 21-24.

5.       Gabriel, V.; Chindris M.; Bindiu, R (Oct. 2009)“Calculation of power losses in unbalanced and harmonic polluted electrical networks”  at 7th International Conference On Electromechanical And Power Systems, Iaşi, Romania. 

6.       De Lima, A.F.M.M. and Ellis, R.G.,(1996), Discussion of "Harmonic analysis of industrial power systems", IEEE Transaction paper, Vol.32, Issue 5.

7.       El-Saadany E., (1998)“Power Quality Improvement for Distribution Systems under Non-linear Conditions”. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

8.       Rens A. P. J. and Swart P. H., (2001) “On techniques for the localization of multiple distortion sources in three-phase networks: Time-domain verification,” ETEP, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 317–322.

9.       IEEE standard 1159 (1995) “Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality”,  IEEE Press.

10.    IEEE Standard 1159.3 (2003) “Recommended Practice for the Transfer of Power Quality Data”,  IEEE Press

11.    IEC Standard 61000-4-30 (2003), “Testing and measurement techniques –Power quality measurement methods”, IEC Press.

12.    Heydt, G.T. (1991). “Electric power quality”, West LaFayette, Indiana, Stars in a Circle Publications, pp 48- 50

13.    Dugan, R. C., McGranaghan, M. F., and Beaty, H. W.,(2003) Electrical Power Systems Quality, McGraw-Hill, New York.
14.    Bollen, M.H.J., (2000) Understanding power quality problems – voltage sags and interruption, IEEE press series of Power Engineering, pp. 255.

15.    Bollen, M.H.J., (Oct. 1997) “Characterization of voltage sags experienced by three-phase adjustable-speed drives”, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 4, 12, 1666–1671.

16.    Malleswara R. A.N., Ramesh R K., Sanker R. B. V.,(2011) “Economic aspects of PQ Disturbances in India”, International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Sciences And Technologies Vol No. 10, Issue No. 1, 076 – 081.

17.    Targosz R, Manson J, “PAN European LPQI power quality survey”, 19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2007, Vienna.

18.    Halpin, S.M. (2001) “Power Quality” The Electric Power Engineering Handbook Ed. L.L. Grigsby Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.

19.    Baggini A. (Eds.), 2008, “Handbook of power quality”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, pp 50.

20.    Ghana Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (2011) Publication of Electricity Tariffs, Accra, State Publishing





Rahul Sood, Ashwani Kumar, Gurpreet Singh Batth

Paper Title:

Experimental Utilization of 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate as a Blend in a Single Cylinder CI Engine

Abstract:   In this investigating study diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate –diesel blends. The blends containing 5, 10 and 15% of 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate fuel by volume are tested on test rig developed for the experimentation. All the tests were conducted in steady state and were set at constant engine speed 1500 RPM. With the addition of oxygen in the fuel, it has been observed that the emission contents reduce remarkably. Moreover there is an increase in the Brake Horse Power and Brake Thermal Efficiency of the engine. So it can be concluded that the addition of 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate by 10% in diesel not only helps to reduce the exhaust emission but also increases the performance of the diesel engine.  10% blend increases the BHP by 7.6% and BTE increases by 7.2 % at full load conditions. Also this blend ration decreases the CO % by 16%, HC by 11.9% and Smoke Opacity reduces by 19.11%. The experimental results prove that the use of 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate fuel as a blend improves the engine operation and reduces the environmental pollution.

2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate, Oxygenated fuel, Diesel engine, Engine emission, Exhaust smoke, Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Hydrocarbon.


1.     Kent Nord and Dan Haupt, “Particulate Emissions from an Ethanol Fueled Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with EGR, Catalyst and DPF”, 4530r11; SAE Paper 2004.
2.     Wietschel Taylor, “NOx Emission and Performance Data for a Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engine at 1500 rpm using Exhaust Gas Recirculation” , Int J Hydrogen Energy; 28:901e8 2004.

3.     Wang Morrone, “Use of Hydrogen to Enhance the Performance of a Vegetable Oil Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine”, Into J Hydrogen Energy 28: 1143e54 2004.
4.     Bhavin H. Mehta, Hiren V. Mandalia, Alpesh B. Mistry, “A Review on Effect of Oxygenated Fuel Additive on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine”, National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, 13-14 May 2004.
5.     Keith D. Vertin and James M. Ohi, “Methylal and Methyl-Diesel Blended Fuels for Use in Compression Ignition Engines”, International Spring Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition Dearborn, Michigan May 3-6, 2005.

6.     Ayhan Demirbas, “Progress and Recent Trends in Biodiesel Fuels”, Energy Conversion and Management, 6 September 2005.





Jagpreet Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Satbir Singh Sehgal

Paper Title:

Experimental Studies on Heat Transfer Augmentation of a Heat Exchanger with Swirl Generators Inserts

Abstract:    Convective heat transfer characteristics within a heat exchanger with twisted tapes of different cuts and materials have been investigated experimentally. Effect of twisted tape of different cuts (square, circular and triangular) inside the inner tube of single unit on heat transfer and friction factor for heating of water for Reynolds number range 500-3000 was studied experimentally. The results obtained from the twisted inserts of GI, Al and Cu materials are compared and the experimental results reveal that the among the three different materials of inserts, Copper inserts performs better and too with square cuts.

 Heat Exchanger, Swirl Generators, Inserts, Nusselt Number, Reynolds Number


1.    Smith Eiamsa-ard, Somsak Pethkool, Chinaruk Thianpong and Pongjet Promvonge, “Turbulent flow heat transfer and pressure loss in a double pipe heat exchanger with louvered strip inserts”, International Communications in heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 35, Pages 120-129, Issue 2, February 2008. 
2.    Smith Eiamsa-ard , Chinaruk Thianpong , Petpices Eiamsa-ard and Pongjet Promvonge, “Convective heat transfer in a circular tube with short-length twisted tape insert”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 36, Pages 365-371, Issue 4, April 2009.

3.    S. Eiamsa-ard and P. Promvonge, “Enhancement of Heat Transfer in a Circular Wavy-surfaced Tube with a Helical-tape Insert”, International Energy Journal, Pages 29-36, August 2007.

4.    Suhas V. Patil and P. V. Vijay Babu, “Performance Comparison of Twisted Tape and Screw Tape Inserts in Square Duct”, International Conference on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Pages 50-55, January 2011.

5.    Smith Eiamsa-ard and Pongjet Promvonge, “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Fitted with a Turbulator”, International Energy Journal, Pages 1-5, January 2006.

6.    B Salam and M M K Bhuiya, “An Experimental Study of Tube-Side Heat Transfer”, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Pages 1-4, December 2007.

7.    Smith Eiamsa-ard and Pongjet Promvonge, “Heat transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with helical screw-tape with/without core-rod inserts”, International Communications in Heat and Mass, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 176-185,  February 2007.

8.    Paisarn Naphon, Effect of coil-wire insert on heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop of the horizontal concentric tubes, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 33 (2006) 753–763.





Rubi Choubey, Md. Arif

Paper Title:

Area Optimized and Low Power using Modified Booth Multiplier for Unsigned Numbers

Abstract: Power consumption and small area is very important for fabricating DSP system and high performance system, requirement of present scenario computer system is dedicated for very high speed and low power unique multiplier unit for signed and unsigned number therefore in this paper focus on unsigned number by using modified booth multiplier. The unsigned 4 bit and 8 bit implementation done by some modification in booth multiplier modified booth multiplier come out to make efficient multiplier reduce N/2 partial product. The parallel multiplier 4 bit and 8 bit modified booth multiplier does the computation using lesser adder and lesser iterative step. The implementation of unsigned 4 bit and 8 bit done in Xilinx ISE Design suite 12.1 tool by using VHDL, model Sim.

  Array Multiplier Booth multiplier, Modified Booth Multiplier, Model Sim, Partial Product, Unsigned, VHDL, Xilinx.

1.    Ravindra P.Rajput, M.N Shanmukha Swamy “ High Speed Modified Booth Encoder Multiplier for Signed and Unsigned numbers” 14th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation 978-0-7695-4682-7/12© 2012 IEEE.
2.    W. C. Yen, C. W. Jen, “High Speed Booth encoded Parallel Multiplier Design,” IEEE transactions on Computer, Vol. 49, No. 7, pp. 692-701, July 2000.

3.    A.D. Booth, “A Signed Binary Multiplication Technique Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied mathematics, Vol-IV, pt-2-1951.

4.    Rainishmi Ranjan, Pramod Mohanty, “A New VLSI Architecture of Parallel Multiplier based on Radix- 4Modified Booth Algorithm Using VHDL”, Inter-national Journal of Computer Science & EngineeringTechnology, ISSN:2229-3345, Vol. 3 No. 4 April 2012.

5.    Lenardo Lde Oliveira, Eduaro Costa, Sergio Bampi,Joao Baptista and Jose Monteiro, “array hybridMultiplier versus Modified Booth Multiplier: comparing Area and Power consumption of layout Implementations of signed Radix-4 Architecture”, IEEE, 2004.

6.    A.S.Prabhu, V.Elakya, “Design of modified Low Power Booth Multiplier”,IEEE, 2012.

7.    Kavita, Jasbir Kaur, “Design and Implementation of an Efficient Modified Booth Multiplier using VHDL”, International Conference on Emerging Trend in Engineering and Management, ISSN:2231-0347, Vol.3(3, July2013).

8.    Sukhmeet Kaur, Suman, Manpreet Singh Manna,  “Implementation of Modified Booth Algorithm (Radix-4) and its comparison with Booth Algorithm(Radix-2)”, Advance Electronic and Electric Engineering, ISSN 2231-1297, Vol.3, November 6(2013), pp. 683-690.

9.    N.H.E. Weste, K.Eshraghain, “Principle Of CMOS VLSI Design, A systems Perspective”, Pearson Education, 2010.





Vedkiran Saini, Parvinder Bangar, Harjeet Singh Chauhan

Paper Title:

Study and Literature Survey of Advanced Encryption Algorithm for Wireless Application

Abstract:  Today increases any wireless communication security is crucial during data transmission. The encryption and decryption of data is the main challenge faced in the wireless communication for security of the data transmission source to destination. In this paper we present the literature study of cryptography security AES algorithm and its present application in communication, data communication and wireless communication. In this paper, we use the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which works on a 128 bit data encrypting it with 128 bits of keys for ensuring security. In this paper literature study of AES algorithm and selection AES algorithms for wireless communication application and design verilog AES sub block add round key, mix column, s-box using Xilinx ISE 9.1i software for a Spartan3 FPGA device

 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Rinjdael, Cryptography,


1.       Xinmiao Zhang and Keshab K. Parhi “Implementation Approaches for the Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm”IEEE 2002
2.       X. Zhang and K. K. Parhi, “High-speed VLSI architectures for the AES algorithm,”IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol.12, issue 9, pp.95967, Sep. 2004.

3.       Hui QIN, Tsutomu SASAO, Yukihiro IGUCHI “An FPGA Design of AES Encryption Circuit with 128-bit Keys”GLSVLSI’05, ACM 2005.

4.       Ashwini M. Deshpande, Mangesh S. Deshpande and Devendra N. Kayatanavar “FPGA Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption” International Conference on Control,Automation, Communication and Energy conservation -2009

5.       Chih-Peng Fanand and Jun-Kui Hwang “FPGA Implementations Of High Throughput Sequential And Fully Pipelined AES Algorithm” International journal of Electrical Engineering, vol.15, no.6, pp. 447-455, 2008.

6.       Pachamuthu Rajalakshmi, “Hardware-software co-design of AES on FPGA” International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics, Pages 1118-1122, 2010.

7.       Mehran Mozaffari-Kermani and Arash Reyhani-Masoleh “Efficient and High Performance Parallel Hardware Architecture for the AES-GCM” IEEE Transactions On Computers, vol.61, no. 8, August 2012.

8.       Saambhavi Baskaran and Pachamuthu Rajalakshmi “Hardware Software Co-Design of AES on FPGA” ICACCI ’12,ACM August 2012.

9.       Pallavi Atha et al, “Design & Implementation Of AES Algorithm Over FPGA Using VHDL”, International Journal of Engineering, Business and Enterprise Applications (IJEBEA)”, ISSN (Online): 2279-0039,pp. 58-62,2013

10.    M. komala subhadra et al, “Advanced Encryption Standard - VHDL Implementation”, International Journal For Technological Research In Engineering, ISSN (Online): 2347 - 4718, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp.132-137 November – 2013.

11.    Prasithsangaree.P and Krishnamurthy.P(2003), “Analysis of Energy Consumption of RC4 and AES Algorithms in Wireless LANs,” in the Proceedings of the IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1445-1449, 2003.

12.    Yoshimura, M. et al, “Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems (DFT)”, IEEE International Symposium on Page(s):278 – 283, 2013

13.    Hui QIN, Tsutomu SASAO, Yukihiro IGUCHI “An FPGA Design of AES Encryption Circuit with 128-bit Keys” GLSVLSI’05, ACM 2005

14.    Chih-Peng Fanand and Jun-Kui Hwang “FPGA Implementations of High Throughput Sequential and Fully Pipelined AES Algorithm” International journal of Electrical Engineering, vol.15, no.6, pp. 447-455, 2008.

15.    Mehran Mozaffari-Kermani and Arash Reyhani-Masoleh“Efficient and High Performance Parallel Hardware Architecture for the AES-GCM” IEEE Transactions On Computers, vol.61, no. 8, August 2012.

16.    Archna Garg et al, “Efficient Field Programmable Gate ArrayImplementation of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm using VHDL”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 4 Issue 9, pp. 3956-3961,September 2013

17.    Saambhavi Baskaran and Pachamuthu Rajalakshmi “Hardware Software Co-Design of AES on FPGA” ICACCI ’12,ACM August 2012.

18.    Ashwini M. Deshpande, Mangesh S. Deshpande and Devendra N. Kayatanavar “FPGA Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption” International Conference on Control, Automation, Communication and Energy conservation -2009.

19.    Richa Sharma, Purnima Gehlot, S. R. Biradar, “VHDL Implementation of AES-128, UACEE International Journal of Advances in Electronics Engineering – IJAEE, Volume 3 : Issue 2, [ISSN 2278 – 215X],pp-17-20, 2013

20.    X. Zhang and K. K. Parhi, “High-speed VLSI architectures for the AES algorithm,”IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol.12, issue 9, pp.95 967, Sep. 2004.

21.    Jin Gong ,Wenyi Liu, Huixin Zhang “Multiple Lookup Table- Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation” Elseveir- 2012 vol.25 pg no.842 – 847.

22.    Biham, Eli and Adi Shamir, Differential Cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard, Springer Verlag, 1993.

23.    National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 197”, 2001

24.    jin Gong ,Wenyi Liu, Huixin Zhang “Multiple Lookup Table- Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation” Elseveir- vol.25 pg no.842 – 847, 2012.





M. Krupa Swaroopa Rani, G. Kiran Kumar, M. Krishnaiah, K.Kameswara Rao

Paper Title:

Clutter Removal for RADAR Wind Profiler using Wavelet Thresholding

Abstract: Atmospheric Signal processing has been one field of signal processing where there is a lot of scope for development of new and efficient tools for cleaning of the spectrum, detection and estimation of the desired parameters. The field of digital signal processing is a very active area for research and applications. Atmospheric signal processing deals with the processing of the signals received from the atmosphere when manually stimulated using atmospheric Radar. Removal of clutter in the radar wind profiler is the utmost important consideration in radar. In this paper, we implement wavelet thresholding for removing clutter from wind profiler Radar data. By applying the concept of discrete multi-resolution analysis and non-parametric estimation theory, we develop wavelet domain thresholding rules, which identify the coefficients relevant for clutter and suppress them and increases the accuracy of wind vector reconstruction.

Clutter, Signal Processing, Wind Profiler, Wavelet Thresholding.


1.       Keeler, R. J. and Passarelli, R. E., Signal processing for atmospheric radars, in Radar in Meteorology, edited by D. Atlas, chap. 20a, 199–229, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1990.
2.       Carter, D., Gage, K. S., Ecklund, W. L., Angevine, W. M., Johnston P. E., Riddle, A. C., Wilson, J., and Williams, C. R., Developments in UHF lower tropospheric wind profiling at NOAA’s Aeronomy Laboratory, Radio Sci., 30, 977–1001, 1995.

3.       Wilfong, T. L., Merritt, D. A., Weber, B. L., and Wuertz, D. B., Multiple signal detection and moment estimation in radar wind profiler spectral data, submitted to J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,1999b.

4.       Schmidt, G., R¨uster, R., and Czechowsky, P., Complementary code and digital filtering for detection of weak VHF radar signals from the Mesosphere, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., GE-17, 154–161, 1979.

5.       Sulzer, M. and Woodman, R., Quasi-complementary codes: A new technique for MST radar sounding, Radio Sci., 19, 337–344, 1984.

6.       Spano, E. and Ghebrebrhan, O., Pulse coding techniques for ST/MST radar systems: A general approach based on a matrix formulation, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 34, 304–316, 1996.

7.       Tsuda, T., Middle Atmosphere Program – Handbook for MAP, vol. 30, chap. Data Acquisition and Processing, pp. 151– 183, ICSU Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP), ISAR 24–28 November 1988, Kyoto, 1989.

8.       May, P. T. and Strauch, R. G., Reducing the effect of ground clutter on wind profiler velocity measurements, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 579–586, 1998.

9.       Gossard, E. E., A fresh look at the radar reflectivity of clouds, Radio Sci., 14, 1089–1097, 1979.

10.    Gossard, E. E. and Strauch, R. G., The refractive index spectra within clouds from forward-scatter radar observations, J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 170–183, 1981.Gossard, E. E. and Strauch, R. G., Radar Observations of Clear Air and Clouds, Elsevier, 1983.

11.    Ralph, F. M., Neiman, P. L., and Ruffieux, D., Precipitation identification from radar wind profiler spectral moment data: Vertical velocity histograms, velocity variance, and signal power – vertical velocity correlation, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 545– 559, 1996.

12.    Gage, K. S., Williams, C. R., Ecklund, W. L., and Johnston, P. E., Use of two profilers during MCTEX for unambiguous identification of Bragg scattering and Rayleigh scattering, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3679–3691, 1999. Ghebrebrhan, O. and Crochet, M., On full decoding of truncated ranges for ST/MST radar applications, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., 30, 38–45, 1992.

13.    Daubechies, I., Ten Lectures on Wavelets, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992.

14.    Vetterli, M. and Kova˘cevi´c, J.,Wavelets and Subband Coding, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 1995.

15.    Louis, A. K., Maaß, P., and Rieder, A.,Wavelets, Teubner, Stuttgart, 1998. Stark, H.-G., Continuous wavelet transform and continuous multiscale analysis, Math. Anal. and Appl., 169, 179–196, 1992.

16.    Meyer, Y., Wavelets: Algorithms and Applications, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1993. Monna, W. A. and Chadwick, R. B.,

17.    Remote-sensing of upper-air winds for weather forecasting: Wind-profiler radar, Bull. WMO, 47, 124–132, 1998.

18.    Holschneider, M., Wavelets: An Analysis Tool, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995.

19.    Burrus, C. S., Gopinath, R. A., and Guo, H., Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transforms, Prentice Hall, 1998.

20.    Teschke, G., Komplexwertige Wavelets und Phaseninformation, Anwendungen in der Signalverarbeitung, Diplomarbeit, Institut f¨ur Mathematik, Universit¨at Potsdam, 1998.

21.    Dahlke, S. and Maaß, P., The affine uncertainty principle in one and two dimensions, Comp. Math. Appl., 30, 293–305, 1995.Kaiser, G., A Friendly Guide to Wavelets, Birkh¨auser, Basel, 1994.

22.    Donoho, D. L. and Johnstone, I. M., Minimax estimation via wavelet shrinkage, Tech. Rep. 402, Department of Statistics, Stanford University, 1992.

23.    Donoho, D. L., Johnstone, I. M., Kerkyacharian, G., and Picard, D., Density estimation by wavelet thresholding, Preprint, Dept. of Statistics, Stanford University, 1993.

24.    Johnstone, I. M. and Silverman, B. W., Wavelet threshold estimators for data with correlated noise, Tech. Rep. Dept. of Statistics, Stanford University, 1995.

25.    Dahlhaus, R., Neumann, M. H., and v. Sachs, R., Nonlinear wavelet estimation of time-varying autoregressive processes, preprint, 1998.





Sarseena C.K,Yadhu R.B

Paper Title:

Fractional Fourier Domain MRI Reconstruction Using Compressive Sensing Under Different Random Sampling Scheme

Abstract:  In clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), any reduction in scan time offers an improvement in patient comfort problem. Compressive sensing introduces a new technique to image reconstruction from less amount of data. It will reduce imaging time in MRI. Compressive sensing exploit the sparsity of the signal. In this paper fractional Fourier is used as sparsifying transform and signal sampled using different random sampling method. Such as gaussian, bernoullie,and poisson distribution. Then MRI accurately reconstructed from very highly under sampled data using Maximum likelihood estimation.

 Compressive sensing, Fractional Fourier transform, maximum likelihood estimation


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