Volume-3 Issue-10

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Volume-3 Issue-10

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S. No

Volume-3 Issue-10, August 2015, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Omorogiuwa Eseosa, Uhunmwangho Roland

Paper Title:

Artificial Neural Network Approach to Distribution Transformers Maintenance

Abstract:   Distribution Transformers (DTs) are important equipment in distribution network and system reliability largely depends on them, hence the requirement for proper and accurate maintenance procedure which is based on foreknowledge of intending faults. DTs, during operational lifetime are subjected to internal fault due to stress, thus generating abnormalities in electrical parameters, degradation of oil and cellulose insulations etc. These lead to overheating, partial discharge or corona which causes fault related gases such as hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon-dioxide (CO2,), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), and ethylene (C2H4) to dissolve in the oil insulation. In this paper, concentrations of fault related gases obtained from Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) coded by Roger’s ratio method were used to develop a model of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in MatLab(2013a) to diagnose incipient faults in distribution transformers. The proposed network which was trained with back-propagation algorithm was use to satisfactorily predict faults in distribution transformers.

Keywords: Distribution Transformers (DTs), electrical parameters, Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

1.          Uhunmwangho Roland and Omorogiuwa Eseosa‘Reliability Prediction of Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution Network Using NEPLAN’The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 12 December – 2014. Pages 68-79 ISSN (e): 2319 – 1813 ISSN (p): 2319 – 1805 www.theijes.com The IJES Page 68
2.          Ahmed Elsayed Bayoumy Abu Elanien, “Transformer Health Assessment and Techno-Economic End of Life Evaluation”, Ph.D Thesis, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2011 

3.          Ali Saeed Alghamdi, Nor Asiah Muhamad, and Abubakar A. Suleiman, “DGA Interpretation of Oil Filled Transformer Condition Diagnosis”,Transactions on Electrical And Electronic Materials Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 229-232, October 25, 2012.

4.          H.L. Willis, G. V. Welch, and R.R. Schrieber, “Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures”, New York Marcel Dekker, 2001.

5.          Hydroelectric Research and Technical Services Group, ‘FIST 3-30 Transformer Maintenance’, United State Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Denver Colorado, 2000

6.          Joe Perez, “Fundamental Principles of Transformer Thermal Loading and Protection”, Texas A&M Relay Conference, 2010.

7.          M. Mir, “Underground Distribution Cable Incipient Fault Diagnosis System”, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, U.S.A., 1999.

8.          Maitha H. Al Shamisi, Ali H. Assi and Hassan A. N. Hejase, “Using MATLAB to Develop Artificial Neural Network Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation in Al Ain City – UAE”, 2011

9.          Nadirah Bte Kamaruddin, “Wavelet and ANN for Distinguishing Magnetizing Inrush Current from Internal Fault Current in Three Phase Power Transformer”, B. Eng Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, April 2010.

10.       Naveen Kumar Sharma, “Review of Artificial Intelligence Techniques Application to Dissolved Gas Analysis on Power Transformer”, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2011.

11.       P. Palmer-Buckle, “A Methodology for Experimentally Verifying Simulation Models for Distribution Transformer Internal Faults”, MS Thesis, Texas A&M University, May 1999.

12.       Pallavi Patil and Vikal Ingle, “A Comparative Study of Different Fault Diagnostic Methods of Power Transformer Using Dissolved Gas Analysis”, Ijmie Volume 2, Issue 4, April, 2012.

13.       Priyesh Kumar Pandey, Harmendra Singh, M Rao, and R K Jarial, “Emerging Trends in Diagnosis and Condition Assessment of Power Transformers Based on Health Index”, 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICETET'2014), London (UK), May, 2014

14.       R. E James and Q. Su, “Condition Assessment of High Voltage Insulation in Power System Equipment”, Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom, 2008.

15.       S. Saranya, Uma Mageswari, Natalya Roy and R. Sudha, “Comparative Study Of Various Dissolved Gas Analysis Methods To Diagnose Transformer Faults”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 3, Issue 3,  pp.592-595, May-Jun 2013

16.       V. Gomathy, and S. Sumathi, Implementation f SVM using Sequential Minimal Optimization for Power Transformer Fault Analysis Using DGA”, International Journal of Computers & Technology Vol 10, No 5, Aug, 2013.

17.       Xujia Zhang, “Neural Network-Based Classification of Single Phase Distribution Transformer Fault Data”, Senior Honors Thesis, Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University April 2006.

18.       Young Zaidey Yang Ghazali, Mohd  Aizam Talib And Hannah Ahmad Rosli, “TNB Experience in Condition Assessment and Life Management of Distribution Power Transformers”, 20th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, June, 2009

19.       Yu Xu, Dongbo Zhangand Yaonan Wang, “Active Diverse Learning Neural Network Ensemble Approach for Power Transformer Fault Diagnosis”, Journal of Networks, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 2010

20.       Zhenyuan Wang, “Artificial Intelligence Applications in the Diagnosis of Power Transformer Incipient Faults” Ph.D Thesis, Blacksburg, Virginia, August, 2000.






Pallavi R. Kulkarni, Tejashri R. Sambre

Paper Title:

Literature Review on Effects of Lateral Forces on Shallow Foundations

Abstract: Foundations of any building or structure shall be designed and constructed to withstand safely all the dead, imposed and wind loads without impairing the stability or inducing excessive movement to the building or of any other building, street, land, slope or services. Shallow footings are subjected to lateral forces induced by earthquake movements, wind loads, water wave pressure, lateral earth pressure, and transmitting power cables. In some structures such as water front structure, earth retaining structure and transmitting power structures, the lateral forces acting on the footings may be dominant. Building only with shallow foundation may overturns under earthquake load. The seismic risk mitigation is one of the greatest challenges of the Civil Engineering and an important contribution toward this challenge can be given by the Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Design of foundations in seismic areas needs special considerations compared to the static case.

 Shallow foundation, earthquake, symmetry of footings, lateral forces.


1.          D Roy (2013) “Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations for Earthquakes” Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering IIT Gn , pp (1-8).
2.          D Raj, M Bharathi (2014) “Analysis of Shallow Foundation on Slope: A Comparative Study”, International Symposium Geo hazards: Science, Engineering and Management, Kathmandu, Nepal, Paper No. LF-16.

3.          D.K. Baidya “Earthquake Resistant Design of Shallow Foundation” Chapter 8 GT 102 NPCBEERM, MHA (DM), pp (1-5).

4.          G. Srilakshmi and B. Rekha (2011) “Analysis of MAT Foundation using Finite Element Method” International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904 , Vol. 04, No 06 SPL, pp. (113-115).

5.          K. J. McManus and N. R. R. Burdon (2001) “Lateral Resistance of Shallow Foundations” NZSEE Conference Paper No. 6.03.01, pp (1-12).

6.          M Ghazavi, A S Mahali “Determination of seismic bearing capacity of shallow strip footings on slopes”, The 8th Symposium on Advances in Science and Technology (8thSASTech), Mashhad, Iran. 8thSASTech.khi.ac.ir., pp (1-10).

7.          N John Joy and  H Hassan (2014) “ Study on Settlement Characteristics of Combined Pile Raft Foundation Founded on Sand with Various Arrangements of Piles using Plaxis – 3 D” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Vol. 4, Issue 10 , pp ( 1-10).

8.          Kaneko, S Nakai, M Futaki and H Arai (2011) “Evaluation System of Seismic Capacity for Building Foundations and Case Studies on Buildings in Sendai City”, International Symposium on Engineering March 1-4, 2012, Tokyo, Japan, pp (1200 – 1208).

9.          R R Sahoo (2013) “Behavior of Eccentrically loaded Shallow Foundationson Granular Soil” A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREEMaster of Technology

10.       S M. Sharma, M G. Vanza, and D D. Mehta (2014) “Comparison of Raft foundation and Beam & Slab Raft Foundation for High Rise Building” International Journal of Engineering Development and Research, ISSN: 2321-9939Vol 2, Issue 1, pp (572-575).

11.       http://www.fema.gov/rebuild/ mat/fema55.shtm

12.       http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1510 204909375/fema55_volii_ch10rev.pdf

13.       http://www.intechopen.com/books/earthquake-resistant-structures- designassessment-andrehabilitation/seismic-bearing-capacity-of-shallow-foundations