Abstract: Distribution Transformers (DTs) are important equipment in distribution network and system reliability largely depends on them, hence the requirement for proper and accurate maintenance procedure which is based on foreknowledge of intending faults. DTs, during operational lifetime are subjected to internal fault due to stress, thus generating abnormalities in electrical parameters, degradation of oil and cellulose insulations etc. These lead to overheating, partial discharge or corona which causes fault related gases such as hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon-dioxide (CO2,), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), and ethylene (C2H4) to dissolve in the oil insulation. In this paper, concentrations of fault related gases obtained from Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) coded by Roger’s ratio method were used to develop a model of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in MatLab(2013a) to diagnose incipient faults in distribution transformers. The proposed network which was trained with back-propagation algorithm was use to satisfactorily predict faults in distribution transformers.
Keywords: Distribution Transformers (DTs), electrical parameters, Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN).
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Abstract: Foundations of any building or structure shall be designed and constructed to withstand safely all the dead, imposed and wind loads without impairing the stability or inducing excessive movement to the building or of any other building, street, land, slope or services. Shallow footings are subjected to lateral forces induced by earthquake movements, wind loads, water wave pressure, lateral earth pressure, and transmitting power cables. In some structures such as water front structure, earth retaining structure and transmitting power structures, the lateral forces acting on the footings may be dominant. Building only with shallow foundation may overturns under earthquake load. The seismic risk mitigation is one of the greatest challenges of the Civil Engineering and an important contribution toward this challenge can be given by the Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Design of foundations in seismic areas needs special considerations compared to the static case.
Keywords: Shallow foundation, earthquake, symmetry of footings, lateral forces.
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7. N John Joy and H Hassan (2014) “ Study on Settlement Characteristics of Combined Pile Raft Foundation Founded on Sand with Various Arrangements of Piles using Plaxis – 3 D” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Vol. 4, Issue 10 , pp ( 1-10).
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11. http://www.fema.gov/rebuild/ mat/fema55.shtm
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13. http://www.intechopen.com/books/earthquake-resistant-structures- designassessment-andrehabilitation/seismic-bearing-capacity-of-shallow-foundations