Abstract: The concept of cash flow as a result of payments for work done in construction projects is not only an old age aspect of the construction industry but also an issue of major concern to project participants and industry at large. This paper investigates the causes of payment difficulties from the small and medium sized contractors in Kenya. Upon the review of literature on the subject matter, data was collected by a way of focus group discussion. The qualitative data is subsequently analyzed thematically while being linked to the wider literature. The study establishes that payment defaults in Kenya are as a result of variations, corruption from client agents, inadequate budgetary allocations, delay in certification and political interference. It is hoped that a greater level of awareness of these causes to industry players would probably help in mitigating the payment problems.
Keywords: Payments, construction projects, construction contracts.
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Abstract: The friction losses in pipe junction is important in many situations like flow distribution in pipes and penstocks. The design of a efficient branching with desired flow distribution having minimum hydraulic loss need to be developed. An experimental approach is selected to evaluate the friction losses at the junction of the pipe branching ‘K = P’. It is desired to know at what split flow ratio and pipe junction geometry the pressure loss at junction is minimum. The paper focuses in determination of pressure losses and flow distribution at pipe branching using the experimentally at various flow rates and pressures. The complexity of pressure drop at pipe junction is high particularly at high Reynolds number. An attempt has been made to study experimentally, the pressure loss at pipe bifurcation and trifurcation with three different angles of branching 20, 25 and 30. The pipe line pressure is varied between 50 KPa to 200 KPa. The experimental data and analysis for 25.4mm main and 19.05 mm bifurcation and trifurcation pipes show the correlation between pressure loss coefficient (K) with a split flow ratios It is found that the turbulence at pipe junction, angle of branching, and diameter ratio are mainly responsible for losses and separation of flow. The overall bifurcation and trifurcation loss coefficient (K) and individual branch loss coefficients (K12, K13, K14) have been computed and correlation between pressure ratio, split flow ratio and loss coefficients have been developed. The optimum value of overall pressure loss coefficients are obtained for different flow ratios. The experimental findings also suggest that the head loss at the bifurcation and trifurcation junction will be minimum when nearly equal discharge flow in branched pipes. New correlations have been developed. The experiments conducted at different pipe line pressures also indicate that the overall bifurcation and trifurcation loss coefficient (K) is high for higher line pressures.
Keywords: Bifurcation and trifurcation, split flow ratio, optimum loss co-efficient.
1. Amit Anakiya, Hiren Prajapati, Sunil Prajapati (2014) Analysis of the penstock for pit turbine using computational fluid dynamics IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 11, Issue 3 Ver. V (2014), PP 36-42
2. Albert Ruprecht, Thomas Helmrich, Ivana Buntic, Very large eddy simulation for the prediction of unsteady vortex motion, Conference on Modeling Fluid Flow (CMFF’03) The 12th International Conference on Fluid Flow Technologies Budapest, Hungary, September 3 - 6, 2003
3. Aguirre C.A, Ramirez R.G, Head losses analysis in symmetrical trifurcations of penstocks - high pressure pipeline systems cfd Camacho Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade federal de Itajubá.
4. Lu, J., Chang, T., Chiew, Y., Hung, S., and Hong, J. (2011). Turbulence characteristics of flows passing through a tetrahedron frame in a smooth open-channel. Advances in Water Resources, 34(6), 718–730.
5. Malik R K & Paras Paudel (2009) 3D flow modeling of the first trifurcation made in Nepal (Hydro Nepal Issue)
6. OBASI1, N.L., OLOKE2, D.A., “Flow Distribution Design Charts for Bifurcation at Convex Channel Curvature”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012).
7. Paritosh R. Vasava, “Fluid Flow in T-Junction of Pipes”, Lappeenranta University Of Technology.
8. RK Malik, Paras Paudel , “3D Flow Modeling of the First Trifurcation Made in Nepal” HYDRO NEPAL ISSUE NO. 5 JULY, 2009.
9. Mohammed Abdulwahhaba, Prof. Niranjan Kumar Injetib, Ass. Prof. Sadoun Fahad Dakhilc, ‘CFD SIMULATIONS AND FLOW ANALYSIS THROUGH A T-JUNCTION PIPE” Mohammed Abdulwahhab et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST).
10. Senoo T., Deguchi K. and Nagata M. “BIFURCATION OF INTERNALLY HEATED FLOW IN A VERTICAL PIPE” 9th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 16-18 July 2012.
11. Ji Dongyu, Li Lamei “Structure Force Analysis for Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe of Dongjiang Hydropower Station”, International Conference on Mechatronics, Electronic, Industrial and Control Engineering (MEIC 2014).
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Abstract: The paper attempts to discuss the factors which characterize the banking systems of many developing and emerging countries such as Africa, Caribbean, South America, Asia except Japan. The research will identified problems of savings, loans and poor asset management, interest rates and inflation, credit issues and borrowing in default. The paper will also focused on equity issues, market imperfection such as underdeveloped capital markets, problem of competition, severe asymmetric information, poor property rights, highly volatile economic environment. Finally compulsory reserve requirements, lending regulation, currency denominated liabilities, conglomerates, financial supervision. Issues of public finance, cost of financial intermediation will be discussed. Other areas to be hammered are financial layering, bank credit, lack of efficient resources, systemic stability risk. The paper will assessed the underlying problems and remedies such as the Basel Accord need to be emphasized. Finally a summary in the form of a conclusion will be briefly demonstrated.
Keywords: Africa, Caribbean, South America, Asia except Japan, requirements, lending regulation, currency denominated liabilities, conglomerates
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Abstract: People owning vehicles face parking problems in most metropolitan area, especially during peak hours. The difficulty roots from not knowing where the parking spaces are available at the given time, even if this is known; many vehicles may pursue a small number of parking spaces which in turn leads to serious traffic congestion. This paper focuses on different smart parking techniques developed to overcome said problem using various wireless sensor network and providing real-time data analysis from the sensors, some papers include system based on resource allocation and reservation of parking lot which have various problems in efficiently achieving the goals. The given paper would be useful for new researchers for study of various guided parking and information techniques and algorithms which are covered in this paper.
Keywords: Smart Parking, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Reservation, Resource Allocation, parking guidance and information (PGI).
1. "IrisNet: An Architecture for Internet-scale Sensing Services" , Suman Nath, Amol Deshpande, Yan Ke, Phillip B. Gibbons, Brad Karp, Srinivasan Seshan.
2. Noor HazrinHanyMohamadHanif, Mohd Hafiz Badiozaman, HanitaDaud, “Smart parking reservation system using short message services (SMS).” , IEEE 2009
3. Hilal Al-Kharusi, Ibrahim Al-Bahadly, “Intelligent Parking Management System Based on Image Processing”, World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2014, 2, 55-67.
4. El Mouatezbillah Karbab, Djamel Djenouri, Sahar Boulkaboul, Antoine Bagula, CERIST Research Center, Algiers, Algeria University of the Western Cape, Cape town, South Africa ,”Car Park Management with Networked WirelessSensors and Active RFID” ‘,978-1-4799-8802-0/15 ©2014
5. M. M. Rashid, A. Musa, M. Ataur Rahman, and N. Farahana, A. Farhana, “Automatic Parking Management System and Parking Fee Collection Based on Number Plate Recognition.”, International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2012, Published 2014
Abstract: In this paper ECG signal is generated from the concept of fourier series. It is based on the glimpse of generating ECG signal equations of cardiovascular disorder systems. The main idea is to develop the simulator for advanced applications. The ECG signal for normal person and diseased person is present. This simulator generates ECG signal for various cardiovascular diseases. These signals can be used for designing the computer based algorithms for automated diagnosis of the heart diseases. Here very simple method for generation of ECG signal based on fourier series is presented.
Keywords: ECG Signal, Fourier Series,
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