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Volume-4 Issue-4

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Volume-4 Issue-4, April 2016, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Mark Obegi Kenyatta

Paper Title:

Causes of Payment Defaults in the Construction Industry of Kenya: Small and Medium Sized Contractor’s Perspective

Abstract:  The concept of cash flow as a result of payments for work done in construction projects is not only an old age aspect of the construction industry but also an issue of major concern to project participants and industry at large. This paper investigates the causes of payment difficulties from the small and medium sized contractors in Kenya. Upon the review of literature on the subject matter, data was collected by a way of focus group discussion. The qualitative data is subsequently analyzed thematically while being linked to the wider literature. The study establishes that payment defaults in Kenya are as a result of variations, corruption from client agents, inadequate budgetary allocations, delay in certification and political interference. It is hoped that a greater level of awareness of these causes to industry players would probably help in mitigating the payment problems.

  Payments, construction projects, construction contracts.


1.          Abdul-Rahman, H., Wang, C., Takim, R., & Wong, S. (2011). Project schedule influenced by financial issues:Evidence in construction industry. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(1), 205-212. Retrieved  from http://www.academicjournals.org/SRE
2.          Adnan, H., Hashim, N., Yusuwan, N., & Ahmad, N. (2011). Ethical Issues in the Construction Industry: Contractor’s Perspective. Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies (pp. 719 – 727). ELSEVIER. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.

3.          AngSuSin, T. (2007). Payment issues - the present dilemmas of malaysian construction industry. kuala lumpur: Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia Istitutional Repostory.

4.          Ansah, S. K. (2011). Causes and Effects of Delayed Payments by Clients on Construction Projects in Ghana. Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation, 1(1), 27 - 45.

5.          Ashworth, A. (2012). Contarctual Procedures (6th ed.). New delhi: Pearson Education Limited.

6.          BERR. (2007). Improving Payment Practices in the Construction Industry: Consultation on proposals to amend Part II of the Housing Grants Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 and the Scheme for Construction Contracts (Scotland) Regulations 1998. Retrieved from http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2007/08/28153225/3

7.          Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th  ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

8.          CCR Magazine. (2015). Debbie Abrahams late payments campaign wins national construction industry award. (G. M. Ltd, Producer) Retrieved from www.ccrmagazine.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=.

9.          Cheng, T., Soo, G., Kumaraswamy, M., & Jin, W. (2010). Security of payment for Hong Kong construction industry. Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, 163(1), 17-28.

10.       Chitkara, K. K. (2011). Construction Project Management - Planning,Scheduling & Control (2nd  ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

11.       Cooke, B., & Williams, P. (2009). Construction Planning, Programming and Control (3rd  ed.). Oxford.: Blackwell.

12.       Cunningham, T. (2013 -March). Will the construction contracts bill improve subcontractor cash-flow? Retrieved 2013 йил 1-December from http://arrow.dit.ie/beschreoth/10

13.       Danuri, M. S., Munaaim, C. M., Rahman, A. H., & Hanid, M. (2006). Late and Non Payment Issues in the Malaysian Construction Industry-A Contractor's Perspective. Sustainable Development through Culture and Innovation, The Joint International Conference on Construction Culture, Innovation and Management (CCIM), 613-623.

14.       Hamzah, A.-R., Chen, W., S, M.-D. M., & Che-Munaaim, E. M. (2014). Cause, Effect and Reaction for Late-payment and Nonpayment Issues in Malaysian Building Sector. Journal of Business Management and Innovations, 1(1), 8-20.

15.       Hasmori, M. F., Ismail, I., & Said, I. (2012 йил 12-13-March). Issues of Late and Non-Payment Among Contractors in Malaysia. International conference on business and economic, 82-93.

16.       Latham, M. (1994). Constructing the Team. UK: HMSO.

17.       Maritz, M. J., & Robertson, D. C. (2012). What are the legal remedies available to contractors and consultants to enforce payment? Journal of the south african
institution of civil engineering, 54(2), 27-35.

18.       Marx, H. J. (2012). Construction Industry Indicators Affecting Contractors. Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value, 4(1), 119-132.

19.       Mbachu, J. (2011). Sources of contractor's payment risks and cashflow problems in the New Zealand construction industry:Project team's perceptions of the risks and mitigation measures. Construction Management and Economics, 29(10), 1027-1041.

20.       Mbiti, T. K. (2008). A System Dynamics Model of Construction Output in Kenya. Melbourne: Unpublished PhD Thesis.Australia: MIT.

21.       Mugenda, A. G., & Mugenda, O. M. (2012). Research Methods Dictionary. Nairobi: Applied Research and Training Services.

22.       Murdoch, ,. J., & Hughes, W. (2008). Construction Contracts: Law and Management (4th  ed.). London: Taylor and Francis.

23.       NCASL. (2008). Report on payment delays in sri lankan construction industry - prepared by : national construction association of sri lanka (southern branch). National Construction Association of Sri Lanka(Southern Branch)..

24.       NESC. (2014). Credit gurantee schemes: The road to expanding business and investiment in Kenya. Nairobi: National Economic and Social Council with support fro USAID Kenya.

25.       Potts, K. (2008). Construction Cost Management - Learning From Case Studies . New York: Taylor & Francis.

26.       Ramachandra, T. (2013). Exploring Feasible Solutions to Payment Problems in the Construction Industry in New Zealand. Auckland University of Technology. Auckland: AUT. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10292/5554

27.       Silverman, D. (2010). Doing Qualitative Research (3rd  ed.). New York: SAGE.

28.       Siti, J. S., & Rosli, R. A. (2010). Contractor’s Right Of Action For Late Or Non-Payment By The Employer. Journal of Surveying, Construction & Property, 1(1), 65-95.

29.       Thomas, R., & Wright, M. (2011). Construction Contract Claims (3 ed.). Hampshire: palgrave macmillan.

30.       Tolson, S. J. (2004). Payment, abatement and set-off. (pp. 1-24). UK: Fenwick Elliott.

31.       Tran, H., & Carmichael, D. G. (2013). A contractor’s classification of owner payment practices. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 20(1),

32.       Uff, J. (2009). Construction Law (10th  ed.). London: Thomson Reuters.

33.       Uher, T. E., & Brand, M. C. (2008). Claimants' view of the performance of adjudication in new South Wales. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 15(5), 470-484.

34.       Wahome, G. W. (2014). Influence of Public Procurement Oversight Authority's Standard Tender Document on Public Building Projects in Kenya. Nairobi: Unpublished Masters Thesis.Nairobi: University of Nairobi.

35.       Whitfield, J. (1994). Conflicts in Construction,Avoiding,managing,resolving. London, London, England: macmilan press ltd.

36.       Wu, J., Kumaraswamy, M., & Soo, G. (2008). Payment Problems and Regulatory Responses in the Construction Industry: Mainland China Perspective. Journal of professional issues in engineering education and practice, 399-407.

37.       Ye, K. M., & Rahman, H. A. (2010). Risk of Late Payment in the Malaysian Construction Industry. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 1(41), 538-546.






Basappa Meti, Nagaraj Sitaram

Paper Title:

Determination of Optimum Pressure loss and Flow Distribution at Pipe Bifurcation and Trifurcation

Abstract:   The friction losses in pipe junction is important in many situations like flow distribution in pipes and penstocks. The design of a efficient branching with desired flow distribution having minimum hydraulic loss need to be developed. An experimental approach is selected to evaluate the friction losses at the junction of the pipe branching ‘K = P’. It is desired to know at what split flow ratio and pipe junction geometry the pressure loss at junction is minimum. The paper focuses in determination of pressure losses and flow distribution at  pipe branching using the experimentally at various flow rates and pressures. The complexity of pressure drop at pipe junction is high particularly at high Reynolds number. An attempt has been made to study experimentally, the pressure loss at pipe bifurcation and trifurcation with three different angles of branching 20, 25 and 30. The pipe line pressure is varied between 50 KPa to 200 KPa.  The experimental data and analysis for 25.4mm main and 19.05 mm bifurcation and trifurcation pipes show the correlation between pressure loss coefficient (K) with a split flow ratios It is found that the turbulence at pipe junction, angle of branching, and diameter ratio are mainly responsible for losses and separation of flow. The overall bifurcation and trifurcation loss coefficient (K) and individual branch loss coefficients (K12, K13, K14) have been computed and correlation between pressure ratio, split flow ratio and loss coefficients have been developed. The optimum value of overall pressure loss coefficients are obtained for different flow ratios. The experimental findings also suggest that the head loss at the bifurcation and trifurcation junction will be minimum when nearly equal discharge flow in branched pipes. New correlations have been developed. The experiments conducted at different pipe line pressures also indicate that the overall bifurcation and trifurcation loss coefficient (K) is high for higher line pressures.

  Bifurcation and trifurcation, split flow ratio, optimum loss co-efficient.


1.       Amit Anakiya, Hiren Prajapati, Sunil Prajapati (2014) Analysis of the penstock for pit turbine using computational fluid dynamics IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 11, Issue 3 Ver. V (2014), PP 36-42
2.       Albert Ruprecht,  Thomas Helmrich,  Ivana Buntic, Very large eddy simulation for the prediction of unsteady vortex motion, Conference on Modeling Fluid Flow (CMFF’03) The 12th International Conference on Fluid Flow Technologies Budapest, Hungary, September 3 - 6, 2003
3.       Aguirre C.A, Ramirez R.G,  Head losses analysis in symmetrical trifurcations of penstocks - high pressure pipeline systems cfd   Camacho Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade federal de Itajubá.

4.       Lu, J., Chang, T., Chiew, Y., Hung, S., and Hong, J. (2011). Turbulence characteristics of flows passing through a tetrahedron frame in a smooth open-channel. Advances in Water Resources, 34(6), 718–730.

5.       Malik R K & Paras Paudel (2009) 3D flow modeling of the first trifurcation made in Nepal (Hydro Nepal Issue)

6.       OBASI1, N.L., OLOKE2, D.A., “Flow Distribution Design Charts for Bifurcation at Convex Channel Curvature”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012).

7.       Paritosh R. Vasava, “Fluid Flow in T-Junction of Pipes”, Lappeenranta University Of Technology.

8.       RK Malik, Paras Paudel , “3D Flow Modeling of the First Trifurcation Made in Nepal” HYDRO NEPAL ISSUE NO. 5 JULY, 2009.

9.       Mohammed Abdulwahhaba, Prof. Niranjan Kumar Injetib, Ass. Prof. Sadoun Fahad Dakhilc, ‘CFD SIMULATIONS AND FLOW ANALYSIS THROUGH A T-JUNCTION PIPE” Mohammed Abdulwahhab et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST).

10.    Senoo T., Deguchi K. and Nagata M. “BIFURCATION OF INTERNALLY HEATED FLOW IN A VERTICAL PIPE” 9th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 16-18 July 2012.

11.    Ji Dongyu, Li Lamei “Structure Force Analysis for Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe of Dongjiang Hydropower Station”, International Conference on Mechatronics, Electronic, Industrial and Control Engineering (MEIC 2014).

12.    Y. Zhu , X.Y. Luo, R.W. Ogden, “Asymmetric bifurcations of thick-walled circular cylindrical elastic tubes under axial loading and external pressure” International Journal of Solids and Structures 45 (2008) 3410–3429.

13.    R.K. Jade, “An experimental and numerical study of two-way splits and junctions in mine airways”, 12th U.S./North American Mine Ventilation Symposium 2008 – Wallace (ed) ISBN 978-0-615-20009-5.






Akwasi Adjei-Kuffour

Paper Title:

An Overview of Factors Which Characterize the Financial Systems of Emerging and Developing Countries

Abstract: The paper attempts to discuss the factors which characterize the banking systems of many developing and emerging countries such as Africa, Caribbean, South America, Asia except Japan. The research will identified problems of savings, loans and poor asset management, interest rates and inflation, credit issues and borrowing in default. The paper will also focused on equity issues, market imperfection such as underdeveloped capital markets, problem of competition, severe asymmetric information, poor property rights, highly volatile economic environment. Finally compulsory reserve requirements, lending regulation, currency denominated liabilities, conglomerates, financial supervision. Issues of public finance, cost of financial intermediation will be discussed. Other areas to be hammered are financial layering, bank credit, lack of efficient resources, systemic stability risk. The paper will assessed the underlying problems and remedies such as the Basel Accord need to be emphasized. Finally a summary in the form of a conclusion will be briefly demonstrated.

Africa, Caribbean, South America, Asia except Japan, requirements, lending regulation, currency denominated liabilities, conglomerates


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25.    Lee ,R and Loayza, N.(2009), Productivity, Efficiency & Economic Growth and Pension in the Asian –Practice Region.

26.    MacDonald,C.A. & Schumacher,L.B. (2007), Financial Deepening in Sub-Saharan Africa:Emipirical Evidence on the role of Creditor rights Protection and Information Sharing, IMF Working Papers, Nos 203.

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Pramod Bide, Sachin Pandey, Gitang Karnam, Krutika Patil

Paper Title:

A Survey on Car Parking Systems

Abstract:  People owning vehicles face parking problems in most metropolitan area, especially during peak hours. The difficulty roots from not knowing where the parking spaces are available at the given time, even if this is known; many vehicles may pursue a small number of parking spaces which in turn leads to serious traffic congestion. This paper focuses on different smart parking techniques developed to overcome said problem using various wireless sensor network and providing real-time data analysis from the sensors, some papers include system based on resource allocation and reservation of parking lot which have various problems in efficiently achieving the goals. The given paper would be useful for new researchers for study of various guided parking and information techniques and algorithms which are covered in this paper. 

 Smart Parking, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Reservation, Resource Allocation, parking guidance and information (PGI).


1.    "IrisNet: An Architecture for Internet-scale Sensing Services" , Suman Nath, Amol Deshpande, Yan Ke, Phillip B. Gibbons, Brad Karp, Srinivasan Seshan.
2.    Noor HazrinHanyMohamadHanif, Mohd Hafiz Badiozaman, HanitaDaud, “Smart parking reservation system using short message services (SMS).” , IEEE 2009

3.    Hilal Al-Kharusi, Ibrahim Al-Bahadly, “Intelligent Parking Management System Based on Image Processing”, World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2014, 2, 55-67.

4.    El Mouatezbillah Karbab, Djamel Djenouri, Sahar Boulkaboul, Antoine Bagula, CERIST Research Center, Algiers, Algeria  University of the Western Cape, Cape town, South Africa ,”Car Park Management with Networked WirelessSensors and Active RFID” ‘,978-1-4799-8802-0/15 ©2014

5.    M. M. Rashid, A. Musa, M. Ataur Rahman, and N. Farahana, A. Farhana, “Automatic Parking Management System and Parking Fee Collection Based on Number Plate Recognition.”, International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, Vol. 2, No. 2, April 2012, Published 2014






Pooja Sabherwal

Paper Title:

Modelling of ECG Signal using Fourier Series

Abstract: In this paper ECG signal is generated from the concept of fourier series. It is based on the glimpse of generating ECG signal equations of cardiovascular disorder systems. The main idea is to develop the simulator for advanced applications. The ECG signal for normal person and diseased person is present. This simulator generates ECG signal for various cardiovascular diseases. These signals can be used for designing the computer based algorithms for automated diagnosis of the heart diseases. Here very simple method for generation of ECG signal based on fourier series is presented.

ECG Signal, Fourier Series,    

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4.       Phayung desyoo, Sukanya Praesomboon, Wanida Sangpetch, Wichai Suracherdkiati, Discrete Mathematical Model for ECG Waveform using Kernel Function, ICROS-SICE International Joint Conference 2009 August 18-21, 2009, Fukuoka International Congress Center, Japan.

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Do, Korea.

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Raman Ghode, Shiv K. Sahu, Amit Mishra

Paper Title:

Hybrid Approach of Credit Card Fraud Detection Based on Outlier Detection

Abstract:  financial fraud is constantly rising with the advancement of new technologies and global mediums of the communication, which is resulting in loss of the millions of dollars over the world-wide every year. The organization and the financial firm lose their large volume because of the fraud and the fraudsters that regularly attempting to search for some new rules and strategy to do unauthorized activities. Hence, the fraud detection systems are now became one of the essentials for all the banks that are issuing credit card to decrease their deficit. An efficient use of the techniques of data mining and their algorithms may be applied to find out or to anticipate the fraud by the Knowledge Discovery from the different patterns obtained from collected data-set. In this paper, it is briefly explained regarding the several credit-card deceivers’ strategies and with their methods of detection for the cyber credit-card transactions. The unauthorized transactions get never protected from being got cleared, the organization that should be agreed the economical cost of those types of transaction. This decreases the associated cost with the higher rates of interest and their complaints.

 Accuracy, Credit Card, Clustering, Classification, Fraud Detection.

1.       B.Sanjaya Gandhi, R.Lalu Naik, S.Gopi Krishna, K.lakshminadh, “Markova Scheme for Credit Card Fraud Detection ,” International Conference on Advanced Computing, Communication and Networks,(2011) 144–147.
2.       Abhinav Srivastava, Amlan Kundu, Shamik Sural, Arun K. Majumdar. “Credit Card Fraud Detection using Hidden Markov Model”. IEEE Transactions on dependable and secure computing,Volume 5; (2008) (37-48).
3.       Anshul Singh, Devesh Narayan “A Survey on Hidden Markov Model for Credit Card Fraud Detection”, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), (2012). Volume-1, Issue-3; (49-52).

4.       V. Bhusari S. Patil “Study of Hidden Markov Model in Credit Card Fraudulent Detection”. International Journal of Computer Applications, (2011). Volume 20– No.5; (0975 – 8887).

5.       V. Bhusari1, S. Patil “Application of Hidden Markov Model in Credit Card Fraud Detection” International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.2, No.6, November 2011.

6.       S. Benson Edwin Raj, A. Annie Portia “Analysis on Credit Card Fraud Detection Methods” 2011.

7.       Leila Seyedhossein, Mahmoud Reza Hashemi Mining Information from Credit Card Time Series for Timelier Fraud Detection International Symposium on Telecommunications 2010.

8.       Genetic algorithms for credit card fraud detection by Daniel Garner, IEEE Transactions May 2011.

9.       M. Hamdi Ozcelik, Ekrem Duman, Mine Isik, Tugba Cevik, Improving a credit card fraud detection system using genetic algorithm, International conference on Networking and information technology 2010.

10.    Adnan M. Al-Khatib, Electronic payment fraud detection techniques, World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal (2012), vol. 2, no. 4. pp. 137-141.

11.    B.T. Adler, L. de Alfaro, S.M. Mola-Velasco, P. Rosso, and A.G. West. “Wikipedia Vandalism Detection: Combining Natural Language, Metadata, and Reputation Features”, Proceedings of the 12th Intl Conf on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics, 277-288, 2011.





D.Y.Thorat, Shiv K Sahu, Amit Mishra

Paper Title:

Various Authentication Techniques for Watermarking: A Survey

Abstract: Due to large number of transmission of digital image over non-secure internet, image authentication techniques have recently gained great importance. Digital watermarking is utilized for copy write protection and ownership detection. However as techniques are get improved more focus is given to authentication. Because of authentication digital image become secure and protected to transfer the information over internet. To protect the authenticity of multimedia images different technique has been proposed. These approaches include conventional cryptography, fragile& semi fragile watermarking and digital signature that are based on image content. This paper presents the overview of techniques used for authentication. The different techniques are summarized and compare with each other by considering experimental results.

  Watermark Lifecycle, Robust Watermarking Schemes, HVS, ICA, Fragile watermarking schemes.

1.       Steineback, M., Dittann, J. and Neuhold, E. (2009) Digital Watermarking – Common watermarking techniques, Important Parameters, Applied mechanisms, Applications, Invertible watermarking, Content-fragile watermarking, Online Encyclopedia, Contributed Article, http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/ pages/6725/Digital Watermarking.html#ixzz0Zoj226VL
2.       Ye, J. and Tan, G. (2008) An Improved Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Meaningful Image, International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol. 2, Pp.822-825.

3.       Lin, S.D., Kuo, Y. and Huang, Y.(2006) An Image Watermarking Scheme with Tamper Detection And Recovery, First International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC'06), Vol. 3,Pp.74-77.

4.       Sachs, D., Anand, R. and Ramchandran, K. (2000) Wireless image transmission using multiple-description based concatenated codes, Proceedings Data Compression Conference DCC 2000, P. 569.

5.       Hussein, J. and Mohammed, A. (2009) Robust Video Watermarking using Multi-Band Wavelet Transform, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 6, No. 1,Pp. 44-49.

6.       Kim, Y., Moon, K. and Oh, I. (2003) A text watermarking algorithm based on word classification and inter-word space statistics, Proceedings Seventh International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Pp.
775 -779.

7.       Eskicioglu, A. and Delp, E.(2001) An overview of multimedia content protection in consumer electronics devices, Proceedings Signal Processing Image Communication, Vol.16 Ppp. 681-699.

8.       Wang, F., Pan, J. and Jain, L.C. (2009) Digital watermarking techniques, Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer Berlin /Heidelberg, Vol. 232/2009, Pp. 11-26

9.       De Strycker, L., Termont, P., Vandewege,J., Haitsma, J., Kalker, A., Maes, M. and Depovere, G. (2000) Implementation of a realtime digital watermarking process for broadcast monitoring on a TriMedia VLIW
processor, IEEE Proceedings - Vision, Image and Signal Processing, Vol. 147, No.4, Pp.371-376.

10.    Kay, S. and Izquierdo, E. (2001) Robust content based image watermarking, Proc. Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, WIAMIS’ 2001, Tampere, Finland.

11.    Kay, S. and Izquierdo, E. (2001) Robust content based image watermarking, Proc. Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, WIAMIS’ 2001, Tampere, Finland.

12.    Ye Xueyi ,ang yunglu ,Zhang jing “A    Robust DWT-SVD blind watermarking algorithm based on Zernike moment” ieee 2014 conference communication security

13.    Naderahmaderin Y. Beheti .S“Robustness of wavelet domain watermarking against scaling attack”IEEE 2015 international conference on CCECE





Ashish Kumar Sharma, Amit Mishra, Shiv Kumar Sahu

Paper Title:

A Review of Image Forgery Detection Technique Using Different Transform Function

Abstract:  Image forgery detection is very important tool in digital forensic. The forgery detection tool detect the forged image area or forged image in terms of fake image and duplicate image. For the detection of image forgery various methods are used such as pixel based operation and transform based operation. The pixel based operation used the matching and segmentation technique and the transform based technique used feature based image forgery detection. In this paper present the review of image forgery detection technique using different transform function. The transform based function is very efficient for the processing of image forgery detection.

Image Forgery, Transform Function, Block Matching, Segmentation

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