Volume-5 Issue-11

Download 34
Total Views 262
File Size 4.00 KB
File Type unknown
Create Date October 21, 2018
Last Updated January 5, 2019

Download Summary Book

S. No

Volume-5 Issue-11, December 2018, ISSN: 2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication

Page No.



S. A. Kalaiselvan, Teena Joseph, N. Vadivelan

Paper Title:

Interesting Unknown Facts About the Fish and Its Behavior

Abstract: The country is gifted with the vast resource in terms of water like rivers, tanks, lakes etc. A fish can be defined as an aquatic creature, which is a cold-blooded vertebrate and has gills throughout life and limbs if any are in form of fins. There are nearly 2500 species out of which 930 are freshwater and the rest are marine. Breathing in depth of the water bodies across all over the world is really amazing, charming and interesting. The fishes may come in all the aspects of different shapes, colors, and their sizes. Nearly 450 million years the fishes have in attendance, also before the occurrence of the dinosaurs the fishes have swum in the sea. This article is going to make aware the types of fishes, interesting and unknown aspects of the fishes in the sea.

Keywords: Gills, Fins, Blooded, Species, Charming


  1. https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/fl.biology.usgs.gov/Carp_ID/html/carassius_auratus.html
  2. http://www.notesonzoology.com/vertebrates/pisces/lung-fish-and-its-types-with-diagram-chordata-zoology/7842
  3. A. Kalaiselvan, V. Parthasarathy, (2014), “An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for UASN by AFISHS Optimization Algorithm”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. No. 9(24), pp. 30589-30602.
  4. A. Kalaiselvan, V. Parthasarathy, (2015), “Performance Evaluation of FMMS using Underwater Sensor Network, Elsevier, ICBEC 2014: October 29-30, San Diego, USA, PID - Z0005.
  5. A. Kalaiselvan, V. Parthasarathy, (2016), “An Efficient Technique in Bio Engineering forFMMS with Effective Data Communication in UWSN”, International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications, Vol.No.9(9), pp. 4191-4200.
  6. https://ohfact.com/interesting-facts-about-fish/
  7. http://www.swallowaquatics.co.uk/blog/17-crazy-facts-fish/
  8. http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/articles/2006/01/17/batfish_feature.shtml
  9. http://www.seasky.org/deep-sea/atlantic-hagfish.html





Manish Kumar Jha, Vikas Mittal

Paper Title:

Analysis of Voice Parameters for the Discrimination of Healthy Voice and Parkinson Disease Affected Voice

Abstract: Parkinson Disease (PD) seems to become one of the most prevalent neurological disorders of the twenty first century. Parkinson Disease is known to be an incurable disease because the clinical motor symptoms appear at later stages of the disease and the condition of patients at that point has become deteriorated. Moreover, the situation is further impaired by the lack of any diagnostic procedures or bio-markers for early evaluation of disease. Some recent studies on Parkinson Patients have concluded that the voice irregularities are the few very early appearing symptoms of Parkinson Disease. In this paper the voice analysis techniques are implemented to classify the Parkinson Patients on the voice parameter scales. The voice parameters which are realized in this approach are frequency, amplitude, pitch and formant, by applying Cepstral voice analysis algorithms. Besides providing patients

Keywords: Parkinson, PRAAT, Voice Parameters Etc


  1. De Lau L. M., Tan LC., "Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease", Neurology Asia, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 231 -238, 2013.
  2. Sakar B.E., Isenkul M.E., Sakar C.o., Sertbas A., Gurgen F., Delil s.,Apaydin H., Kursun O., "Collection and Analysis of a Parkinson SpeechDataset With Multiple Types of Sound Recordings", IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health informatics, Vol. 17, Issue 4, pp. 828-34, 2013.
  3. Athanasios Tsanas, Max A. Little, Patrick E. McSharry, Jennifer SpielLorraine O. Ramig, " Novel Speech Signal Processing Algorithms for High-Accuracy Classification of Parkinson's Disease", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 59, Issue 5, pp. 1264-1271, 2012.
  4. Rektorova I., Mikl M., Barrett J., Marecek R., Rektor I., Paus T., "Functional neuroanatomy of vocalization in patients with Parkinson's disease" Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Elsevier, 313, pp. 7-12, 2012.
  5. Miller N., "Speech, voice and language in Parkinson's disease: changes and interventions", Future Medicine, Future science group, 10.2217 NMT.12.15,2012.
  6. Shirvan R. A., Tahami E., "Voice Analysis for Detecting Parkinson's Disease Using Genetic Algorithm and KNN", IEEE Conference on Biomedical Engineering, pp. 978-1005, 2011.
  7. Rouzbahani H. K., Daliri M.R., "Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease in Human Using Voice Signals", Basic and Clinical NEUROSCIENCE, Vol. 2, pp. 12-20, 2011.
  8. Bocklet T.,Noth E., Stemmer G., Ruzickova H., Rusz J., "Detection of Persons with Parkinson's Disease by Acoustic, Vocal, and Prosodic Analysis",IEEE Conference on Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding,Waikoloa, HI, pp. 478-483, 2011.
  9. Sidtis D.V.L., Rogers T., Godier V., Tagliat M., "Voice and Fluency Changes as a Function of Speech Task and Deep Brain Stimulation", American Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53, pp. 1167-1177, 2010.
  10. Constantinescu G., Theodoros D., Russell T., Ward E., Wilson S., Wootton R. “Assessing disordered speech and voice in Parkinson's disease: a telerehabilitation application", Informa healthcare, Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists University f Queensland, 1460-6984, 2010.
  11. Yang X., Tan B., Ding J., Zhang J., Gong J., "Comparative Study on Voice Activity Detection Algorithm", IEEE International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 599-602, 2010.
  12. Hirschberg J., A. Neustein (ed.), Advances in Speech Recognition: Mobile Environments, Call Centers and Clinics, "You're as Sick as You Sound": Using Computational Approaches for Modeling Speaker State to Gauge Illness and Recovery, Springer Science+Business Media, Vol. 13, pp. 305-22, 2010.
  13. Skodda, Sabine; Rinsche, Heiko; Schlegel, Uwe, "Progression of dysprosody in Parkinson's disease over time-A longitudinal study", Movement Disorders, 24, Issue 5, pp. 716-22, 2009.
  14. A. Little, P. E. McSharry, E. J. Hunter, J. Spielman, and L. O. Ramig, Suitability of dysphonia measurements for telemonitoring of Parkinson's disease", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 56, Issue 4, pp. 1015-1022, 2009.
  15. Paulraj M.P, Yaacob S., Hariharan M., "Diagnosis of vocal fold pathology using time-domain features and systole activated neural network", IEEE 5th International Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications, pp. 29-32,2009.
  16. Quek F., Bryll R., Harper M., Chen L, Ramig L., "Audio and Vision-Based Evaluation of Parkinson's Disease from Discourse Video", IEEE Xplore, pp. 10-21, 2009
  17. Ehrlich J., "Asthma, Allergies, Articulation: a Speech Therapy Perspective.” Asthma Allergies Children parent's web guide,
  18. Jankovic J. "Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis", J. Neurol. Psychiatr., Vol. 79, Issue 4, pp. 368-76, 2008..
  19. Proakis J.G.Manolakis D.G., "Digital signal processing", Pearson Prentice hall.2007
  20. Press W.H., Teukolsky S.A., Vetterling W.T., Flannery B.P., "Support Vector Machines", Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  21. Earl Gosh et al, "Pattern recognition", School of computer science, Tele-communciations and information system, DePaul University, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2007.
  22. Gold B., Morgan N., "Speech and Audio Signal Processing", John Wiley & Sons,
  23. Waters C.W., "Diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease", NY: Professional Communications, 4, 2005.
  24. Duffy J. R., "Motor speech disorders: Substrates, differential diagnosis, and management", 2nd ed., St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby, 2005
  25. Peng, F. Long, and C. Ding, "Feature selection based on mutual information: criteria of max-dependency, max-relevance, and minredundancy," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach., Vol. 27, Issue 8, pp. 1226-1238, 2005.
  26. Dauer W., Przedborski, S., "Parkinson's Disease: Mechanisms and Models" Neuron, Cell Press, Vol. 39, pp. 889-909, 2003.
  27. Huber J. E., Stathopoulos E. T., Ramig L. O., Lancaster S. L.,"Respiratory function and variability in individuals with Parkinson disease: Pre- and post-Lee Silverman Voice Treatment", Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 11, Issue 4, 185-201. (2003).
  28. Arfib D., Keiler F., Zolzer U., "Source-filter processing", Digital Audio Effects, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 299-372, 2002.
  29. Shaughnessy DO., "Speech Communication", University press Ltd, 2,2001
  30. Geralyn M., Schulz, Megan K., "Grant effecets of speech therapy and pharmacologic and surgical treatments on voice and speech in Parkinson's Disease", Elsevier Science, Vol. 33, pp. 59-88, 2000.
  31. Bower J. H., "Multiple system atrophy", Parkinson's disease and movement disorders: Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for the practicing physician In C. H. Adler &J. E. Ahlskog, Totowa, Humana Press, pp. 235-242, 2000.
  32. Stacy M., "Progressive Supranuclear Palsy", Parkinson's disease and movement disorders: Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for the practicing physician, In C. H. Adler & J. E. Ahlskog, Totowa, Humana Press, 229- 234, 2000.
  33. Dewey R. B., "Clinical features of Parkinson's disease", Parkinson's disease and movement disorders: Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for the practicing physician, In C. H. Adler & J. E. Ahlskog, Totowa, Humana Press, pp. 71-84, 2000.
  34. LeWitt P. A., "Parkinson's disease: Etiologic considerations", Parkinson's disease and movement disorders: Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for the ticing physician in C. H. Adler & J. E. Ahlskog, Totowa, Humana Press, rac pp. 91-101, 2000
  35. Schroeder M. R., "Computer Speech: Recognition, Compression, and Synthesis", Springer Verlag, 1999,
  36. Kondaz A.M., "Digital Speech coding for low bit rate Communication Systems", John Wiley & sons, 1999.
  37. Luschei E.S., Ramig L.O., Baker K.L., Smith M.E., "Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults and in persons with parkinson disease", Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 81, pp. 2131-39, 1999.
  38. Michaelis D., "Selection and combination of acoustic features for the description of pathologic voices", Journal of Acoustical Society of America Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 1628-40, 1998.
  39. Mitra S.K., "Digital Signal Processing: A computer-Based Approach", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998.
  40. Yegnanarayana B., Veldhuis R.N.J., "Extraction of vocal-tract system characteristics from speech signals", IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio processing, Vol. 6, pp. 313-327, 1998.
  41. Lang E., Lozano A. M., "Parkinson's disease", New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 339, Issue 15, pp. 1044-1053, 1998.
  42. Baker, K.K., Ramig, L.O., Luschei, E.S, & Smith, M.E., "Thyroarytenoid muscle activity associated with hypophonia in Parkinson disease and aging", Neurology, Vol. 51, pp. 1592-1598, 1998.
  43. Fox, C.M., & Ramig, L.O., "Vocal sound pressure level and self-perception of speech and voice in men and women with idiopathic Parkinson disease" American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, pp. 85-94, 1997,
  44. De Rijk M. C., Tzourio C, Breteler M. M, Dartigues J. F, Amaducci L. Lopez-Pousa S., et al., "Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Europe: The EUROPARKINSON collaborative study. European community concerted action on the epidemiology of Parkinson's disease", Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Vol. 62, Issue 1, pp. 10-15, 1997,
  45. Hammen, V.L., & Yorkston, K.M., "Speech and pause characteristics following speech rate reduction in hypokinetic dysarthria", Journal of Communication Disorders, Vol. 29, pp. 429-444, 1996.
  46. Perez,K.S., Ramig, L.O., Smith, M.E., & Dromey, C., "The Parkinson larynx: Tremor and videostroboscopic findings", Journal of Voice, 10, 354-361.(1996).
  47. Theodoros D. G., Murdoch B. E., Thompson E. C, "Hypernasality in Parkinson's disease: A perceptual and physiological analysis", Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 73-84, 1995.
  48. Smith, M.E., Ramig, L.O., Dromey, C., Perez, K.S., & Samandari, R., Intensive voice treatment in Parkinson disease: Laryngostroboscopic findings", Journal of Voice, 9, pp. 453-459, 1995.
  49. Moulines E., Verhelst W., "Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Techniques for Prosodic Modification of Speech", Elsevier Science B.V., Speech Coding and Synthesis, 1995.
  50. Solomon, N.P., & Hixon, T.J., "Speech breathing in Parkinson's disease" Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Vol. 36, pp. 294-310, 1993.





P. Dharmapandian, J. Joseph, J. Dharmaraja

Paper Title:

Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of Metal Complexes Derived from 3–Hydroxyquinoxaline–2–Carboxaldehyde and 2–Aminobenzothiazole

Abstract: Novel metal complexes were synthesized by the condensation of 3–hydroxyquinoxaline–2–carboxaldehyde and 2–aminobenzothiazole. Using elemental analysis, IR, 1H–NMR, UV–Vis., molar conductance, magnetic moment and electrochemical studies, the ligands and its metal complexes were characterized. The magnetic moment and electronic spectral data evidenced that all the complexes exhibit square planar geometry. The metal complexes showed better antimicrobial screening than that of its free ligands. Using the cyclic voltammetry technique, the DNA binding behavior of complexes with CT DNA has been studied. The DNA binding constants revealed that intercalation binding mode for all metal complexes with DNA. Antibacterial screening of the ligand and its complexes reveal that all the complexes show higher activities than the ligand.

Keywords: 2–Aminobenzothiazole; Metal–Schiff base Complexes; Spectral; DNA binding; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant activities.

2ABT (L) = 2–Aminobenzothiazole;
AA = Ascorbic acid,
DPPH = 2, 2–Diphenyl–1–picrylhydrazyl,
CV = Cyclic voltammogram,
MIC = Minimum inhibitory concentration


  1. J. Brown, Quinoxalines, Supplement II, The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Volume 61, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey (2004).
  2. Dell, D. H. Williams, H. R. Morris, G. A. Smith, J. Feeney, G. C. K. Roberts, Structure revision of the antibiotic echinomycin, Journal of the American Chemical Society 97 (1975) 2497.
  3. M. Kher, S. X. Cai, E. Weber, J. F. W. Keana, Regiospecific Oxidative Nitration of 3,4–Dihydro–6,7–disubstituted Quinoxaline–2(1H)–ones Gives 1,4–Dihydro–5–nitro–6,7–disubstituted Quinoxaline–2,3–diones, Potent Antagonists at the NMDA/Glycine Site, Journal of Organic Chemistry 60 (1995) 5838.
  4. Toshima, T. Kimura, R. Takano, T. Ozawa, A. Ariga, Y. Shima, K. Umezawa, S. Matsumura, Molecular design, chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of quinoxaline–carbohydrate hybrids as novel and selective photo–induced DNA cleaving and cytotoxic agents, Tetrahedron, 59 (2003) 7057.
  5. Azqueta, L. Arbillaga, G. Pachón, M. Cascante, E. E. Creppy, A. L. de Cerain, A quinoxaline 1,4–di–N–oxide derivative induces DNA oxidative damage not attenuated by vitamin C and E treatment, Chemico–Biological Interactions 168 (2007) 95.
  6. Budagumpi, N. V. Kulkarni, G. S. Kurdekar, M. P. Sathisha, V. K. Revankar, Synthesis and spectroscopy of CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII complexes derived from 3, 5–disubstituted–1H–pyrazole derivative: a special emphasis on DNA binding and cleavage studies, European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 45 (2010) 455.
  7. Toshima, R. Takano, T. Ozawa, S. Matsumura, Molecular design and evaluation of quinoxaline–carbohydrate hybrids as novel and efficient photo–induced GG–selective DNA cleaving agents, Chemical Communications (2002) 212.
  8. Corona, G. Vitale, M. Loriga, G. Paglietti, Quinoxaline chemistry. Part 11. 3–Phenyl–2[phenoxy and phenoxymethyl]–6(7)or 6,8–substituted quinoxalines and N–[4–(6(7)–substituted or 6,8–disubstituted–3–phenylquinoxalin–2–yl) hydroxy or hydroxymethyl] benzoylglutamates. Synthesis and evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity and enzymatic inhibitory activity against dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase. Il Farmaco 55 (2000) 77.
  9. Banerjee, A. K. Mukherjee, R. Mukhopadhyay, N. G. Kundu, A. J. Welch, A series of three (E)–2–alkyldene–1,4–di–p–tosyl–1,2,3,4–tetra¬hydro¬quinoxaline compounds, Acta Crystallographica C 57 (2001) 861.
  10. I. Vogel, Practical Organic Chemistry, 4th Edn., Longmann, 1978.
  11. Angellici R.J, Synthesis and Techniques in Inorganic Chemistry, W.B. Saunders Company, 1969.
  12. Joseph, K Nagashri, G. B Janaki, Novel metal based anti–tuberculosis agent: synthesis, characterization, catalytic and pharmacological activities of copper complexes, European Journal of medicinal chemistry 49 (2012) 151.
  13. Geary W. J, The use of conductivity measurements in organic solvents for the characterisation of coordination compounds, Coordination Chemistry Reviews 7 (1971) 81.
  14. A. Ali, Magnetic and spectroscopic studies on nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of some neutral tridentate ONS ligands, Canadian Journal of Chemistry 58 (1980) 727.
  15. Maria D. M. C, Da silva R, Jorge M. G, Ana L. R. S, Paula C. F. C, Schroder B and Manual A.V, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 224 (2004) 207.
  16. Spinu , Kriza A, I, Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of bidentate Schiff bases, Acta Chimica Slovenica, 47 (2000) 179.
  17. Sathyadevi P, Krishnamoorthy P, Butorac R. R, Cowley A.H and Dharmaraj N, Synthesis of novel heterobimetallic copper(I) hydrazone Schiff base complexes: a comparative study on the effect of heterocyclic hydrazides towards interaction with DNA/protein, free radical scavenging and cytotoxicity, Metallomics 4 (2012) 498.
  18. Chaviara A. T, Christidis P. C, Papageorgiou A, Chrysogelou E, Hadjipavlou–Litina D. J, Bolos C. A, In vivo anticancer, anti–inflammatory, and toxicity studies of mixed–ligand Cu(II) complexes of dien and its Schiff dibases with heterocyclic aldehydes and 2–amino–2–thiazoline. Crystal structure of [Cu(dien)(Br)(2a–2tzn)](Br)(H2O), Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 99 (2005) 2102.
  19. Coggan D. Z. M, Haworth I. S, Bates P. J, Robinson A, Rodger A, DNA binding of ruthenium tris(1,10–phenanthroline): Evidence for the dependence of binding mode on metal complex concentration, Inorganic Chemistry 38 (1999) 4486.
  20. Tan C, Liu J. L, Chen S, and Synthesis structural characteristics, DNA binding properties and cytotoxicity studies of a series of Ru(III) complexes, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 102 (2008) 1644. 
  21. Dimiza F, Perdih F, Tangoulis V, Turel I, Kessissoglou D. P, Psomas G, Interaction of copper(II) with the non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs naproxen and diclofenac: Synthesis, structure, DNA– and albumin–binding, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 105 (2011) 47.
  22. Nogrady, J. Keshmirian, Rotifer neuropharmacology–II. Synergistic effect of acetylcholine on local anesthetic activity in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera, Aschelminthes), Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part C, Pharmacology, toxicology and endocrinology 83 (1986) 339.
  23. Butterfield D. A, Howard B, Yatin S, Koppal T, Drake J, Hensley K, Aksenov M, Aksenova M, Subramaniam R, Varadarajan S, Harris–White ME, Pedigo NW Jr, Carney J. M. Elevated oxidative stress in models of normal brain aging and Alzheimer's disease, Life Sciences 65 (1999) 1883.