Research and non-research articles must cite relevant and verified literature (peer-reviewed, where appropriate) to support any claims made in the article. Authors are strongly advised to avoid excessive and inappropriate self-citation or prearrangements among author groups to inappropriately cite each other’s work, as this can be considered a form of misconduct. Authors of non-research articles (e.g., Reviews, Opinions) should ensure the references they cite are relevant and provide a fair and balanced overview of the current state of research on the topic and should not be biased towards a particular research group, organization or journal.

Full details of the reference style guide can be found here. This will provide details on how to reference journal articles, books, conference proceedings, patents, clinical trials and other material.

The following types of articles should be added to the references list:

  • “In Press” article: Articles which have been accepted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal but have not yet been published should be referred to as “In Press” in lieu of publication dates.
  • Website links: Any references to websites that are not for product manufacturers or websites for programs should be included in the reference list. These should include the title of the site, the URL, and the date the website was accessed.
  • Preprints: Articles which have been published in preprint servers or institutional repositories should be cited in the Reference list. These should include the names of the authors, the title of the article, the DOI of the preprint, and the date the preprint was posted. If the preprint has been formally published in a peer-reviewed journal, authors should cite that version instead of the preprint.
  • All our journals have a data sharing policy which highly encourages authors to cite data associated with their article. In general, the following elements should be included in data citations:
    1. Author – the individual(s) responsible for the creation of the data
    2. Material Designator – the tag “[dataset]”
    3. Electronic Retrieval Location – a persistent identifier (e.g. DOI) where this is available
    4. Publisher Location – this is often the repository where the author has deposited the data set
  • Thesis: Authors are encouraged to cite their thesis where this is relevant to their submission. In general, the following style should be followed for thesis which are stored in a repository or database:
    1. Author name, “Title”, Thesis type, University, Year published; electronic retrieval location (DOI) where available