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Volume-2 Issue-1

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Volume-2 Issue-1, November 2013, ISSN:  2319–6378 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Supriya Sarkar, Sanghita Deb, G. Dilip

Paper Title:

A New Architecture for Signed and Unsigned Multiplier by Using Radix-4 Process

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of signed-unsigned Modified Booth Encoding (SUMBE) multiplier. The present Modified Booth Encoding (MBE) multiplier and the Baugh-Wooley multiplier perform multiplication operation on signed numbers only. The array multiplier and Braun array multipliers perform multiplication operation on unsigned numbers only. Thus, the requirement of the modern computer system is a dedicated and very high speed unique multiplier unit for signed and unsigned numbers. Therefore, this paper presents the design and implementation of SUMBE multiplier. The modified Booth Encoder circuit generates half the partial products in parallel. By extending sign bit of the operands and generating an additional partial product the SUMBE multiplier is obtained. The Carry Save Adderr (CSA) tree and the final Carry Lookahead (CLA) adder used to speed up the multiplier operation. Since signed and unsigned multiplication operation is performed by the same multiplier unit the required hardware and the chip area reduces and this in turn reduces power dissipation and cost of a system.

SUMBE, MBE, CSA, CLA. Baugh-wooley multiplier.


1.        Verilog hdl by padbanabam.
2.        Shiann-Rong Kuang, Jiun-Ping Wang, and Cang-Yuan Guo, “Modified Booth multipliers with a Regular Partial Product Array,” IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems-II, vol 56, No 5, May 2009.

3.        Li-Rong Wang, Shyh-Jye Jou and Chung-Len Lee, “A well-tructured Modified Booth Multiplier Design” 978-1-4244-1617-2/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE.

4.        Soojin Kim and Kyeongsoon Cho “Design of High-speed Modified Booth Multipliers Operating at GHz Ranges” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 61 2010.

5.        Magnus Sjalander and Per Larson-Edefors. “The Case for HPMBasedBaughWooleyMultipliers,”ChalmersUniversityofechnology, Sweden, March 2008.

6.        Z Haung and M D Ercegovac, “High erformance Low Power  left to   .right array multiplier design” IEEE trans.Computer, vol 54 no3, page 272-283 Mar 2005.

7.        Hsing-Chung Liang and Pao-Hsin Huang, “Testing Transition Delay Faults in Modified BoothMultipliers by Using C-testable and SIC Patterns”IEEE2007, 1-4244-1272

8.        Aswathy Sudhakar, and D. Gokila, “Run-Time Reconfigurable Pipelined Modified Baugh-Wooley Multipliers,” Advances in Computational Sciences and Technology ISSN 0973-6107 Volume 3 Number 2 (2010) pp. 223–235.

9.        Myoung-Cheol Shin, Se-Hyeon Kang, and In-Cheol Park, “An Area-Efficient Iterative Modified-Booth Multiplier Based on Self-Timed Clocking,” Industry, and Energy through the project System IC 2010, and by IC Design Education Center (IDEC).

10.     Leandro Z. Pieper, Eduardo A. C. da Costa, Sérgio J. M. de Almeida, “Efficient Dedicated Multiplication Blocks for2´s Complement Radix-2m Array Multipliers,” JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2010.

11.     C R Baugh and B. A Wooley, “ A two’s complement parallel array multiplication algorithm,” IEEE Transaction on Computers, Vol. 22, n0.12,pp 1045-1047, Dec.1973.

12.     Neil H E Weste, David Harris, Ayan Banerjee, “CMOS VLSI Design A circuits and Systems Perspective ” Third edition, Pearson Education, pp.347-349.

13.     Pucknell Douglas A, Eshraghan, Kamran, “Basic VLSI Design,”Third edition 2003, PHI Publication, pp.242-243.

14.     A Chandrakasan and R Brodersen, “ Low power CMOS digital design,” IEEE J solid state circ, vol 27 no. 4, April 1992, pp. 473-484.

15.     C. S Wallace, “A suggestion for a fast multiplier” IEEE Transaction on Electronic Computers, pp-14-17, Feb-1974.





Mohammad Hassan Chamansara, Ayat Akbari, Hassan Taheri, Abdolhamid Sohrabi

Paper Title:

High Performance and Low-Power Full Adder

Abstract: Full adders (FAs) are essential for digital circuits including microprocessors, digital signal processors, and microcontrollers. Both the power consumption and the reliability of FAs are crucial as they directly affect: arithmetic logic units, floating-point units, as well as memory address calculations. This paper studies the effect threshold voltage (VTH) variations play on the reliability of a classical 28- transistor FA, and shows that reliability can be enhanced without increasing the occupied area, and while also reducing power consumption. An enabling transistor sizing scheme is used to improve on reliability without increasing power consumption (as reducing and limiting currents). The proposed FA in 16nm predictive technology model (PTM) is significantly more reliable (six orders of magnitude in case of Cout, and three orders of magnitude in case of Sum at 10% input variations) and dissipates 38× less than a classical FA, while being 6× slower.

Full adder, CMOS, power, energy, reliability.


1.        M. Alioto, and G. Palumbo, “High-speed/low-power mixed full adder chains: Analysis and comparison versus technology,” Proc. ISCAS, New Orleans, LA USA, May 2007, pp. 2998–3001.
2.        S. Aunet, et al., “Multifunction subthreshold gate used for a low power full adder,” Proc. NorChip, Oslo, Norway, Nov. 2004, pp. 44– 47.

3.        S. Goel, et al., “Design of robust, energy-efficient full adders for deep-submicrometer design using hybrid-CMOS logic style,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst., vol. 14, Dec. 2006, pp. 1309–131.

4.        K. Granhaug, and S. Aunet, “Six subthreshold full adder cells characterized in 90nm CMOS technology,” Proc. DDECS, Prague, Czech Republic, Apr. 2006, pp. 25–30.

5.        SIA, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), 2009 [Online]. Available at: public.itrs.net

6.        H. Iwai, “Roadmap for 22nm and beyond” (invited), Microelectr. Eng., vol. 86, Jul.-Sep. 2009, pp. 1520–1528.

7.        C. Millar, et al., “Accurate statistical description of random dop antinduced threshold voltage variability,” IEEE Electr. Dev. L ett., vol. 29, Aug. 2008, pp. 9 46–948.

8.        S Purohit et al., “New performance/power/area efficient, reliable full adder design,” Proc. GLSVLSI, Boston, MA, USA, May 2009, pp. 493–498.

9.        T. J. Dysart, and P. M. Kogge, “Analyzing the inherent reliability of moderately sized magnetic and electrostatic QCA circuits via probabilistic transfer matrices,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst., vol. 17, Apr. 2009, pp. 507–516.
10.     H. B. Marr, et al., “Increased energy efficiency and reliability of ultralow power arithmetic,” Proc. MWSCAS, Knoxville, TN, USA, Aug. 2008, pp. 366–369.
11.     W. Ibrahim, et al., “On the reliability of majority gates full adders,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech., vol. 7, Jan. 2008, pp. 56–67.

12.     W. Ibrahim, and V. Beiu, “Threshold voltage variations make full adders reliabilities similar,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech., vol. 9, Nov.  2010, pp. 664–667.

13.     M. H. Sulieman, V. Beiu, and W. Ibrahim, “Low-power and highly reliable logic gates: Transistor-level optimizations,” Proc. IEEENANO, Seoul, Korea, Aug. 2010, pp. 254–257.

14.     Y. Li, et al., “Large-scale atomistic approach to random-dopantinduced characteristic variability in nanoscale CMOS digital and high-frequency integrated circuits,” Proc. ICCAD, San Jose, CA, USA, Nov. 2008, pp. 278–285.

15.     W. Ibrahim, and V. Beiu, “Using Bayesian networks to accurately calculate the reliability of complementary metal oxide semiconductor gates,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., Sep. 2011 (to appear).

16.     D. Bol, “Robust and energy-efficient ultra-low-voltage circuit design under timing constraints in 65/45nm CMOS,” J. Low Power Electr. Appl., vol. 1, Jan. 2011, pp. 1–19.

17.     D. Bol, et al., “Interests and limitations of technology scaling for subthreshold logic,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst., vol. 17, Oct. 2009, pp. 1508−1519.

18.     M. Alioto, “Understanding DC behavior of subthreshold CMOS logic through closed-form analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circ. & Syst. I, vol. 57, Jul. 2010, pp. 1597−1607.

19.     W. Zhao, et al. “Predictive technology model for nano-CMOS design exploration,” ACM J. Emerg. Tech., vol. 3, Apr. 2007, pp. 1–17.

20.     Predictive Technology Model [Online]. Available at: ptm.asu.edu

21.     W. Ibrahim, and V. Beiu, “A Bayesian-based EDA tool for nanocircuits  reliability calculations,” Proc. Nano-Net, Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 2009, pp. 276–284.

22.     V. Beiu, and W. Ibrahim, “Devices and input vectors are shaping von Neumann multiplexing,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech., vol. 10, May 2011, pp. 606–616.






Supriya  Sarkar,  Sanghita Deb, Tejaswini  R. Choudri, Sudha Nair

Paper Title:

Delay Analyzing Between KS, SKS, Spaning Tree and Brentkung Adders

Abstract: Adders are known to have the frequently used in VLSI designs. In digital design we have half adder and full adder, main adders by using these adders we can implement ripple carry adders. RCA use to perform any number of addition. In this RCA is serial adder and it has commutation delay problem. If increase the ha&fa simultaneously delay also increase. That’s why we go for parallel adders (parallel prefix adders). In the parallel prefix adder are ks adder(kogge-stone),sks adder(sparse kogge-stone),spaning tree and brentkung adder. These adders are designed and caparisoned by using of area and delay constraints. Simulated and synthesis by model sim6.4b, Xilinx ise10.1

RCA, KS, SKS, Spanning tree, Brentkung adder.


1.        Verilog HDL by padmanabam
2.        Switching theory logic design by-RP.Jain

3.        K. Vitoroulis and A. J. Al-Khalili, “Performance of Parallel Prefix Adders Implemented with FPGA technology,” IEEE Northeast Workshop on Circuits and Systems, pp. 498-501, Aug. 2007.

4.        D. Gizopoulos, M. Psarakis, A. Paschalis, and Y. Zorian, “Easily Testable Cellular Carry Lookahead Adders,” Journal of Electronic Testing: Theory and Applications 19, 285-298, 2003.

5.        S. Xing and W. W. H. Yu, “FPGA Adders: Performance Evaluation and Optimal Design,” IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 24-29, Jan. 1998.

6.        M. Bečvář and P. Štukjunger, “Fixed-Point Arithmetic in FPGA,” Acta Polytechnica, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 67-72, 2005.

7.        P. M. Kogge and H. S. Stone, “A Parallel Algorithm for the Efficient Solution of a General Class of Recurrence Equations,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. C-22, No 8, August 1973.

8.        P. Ndai, S. Lu, D. Somesekhar, and K. Roy, “Fine-Grained Redundancy in Adders,” Int. Symp. on Quality Electronic Design, pp. 317-321, March 2007.

9.        T. Lynch and E. E. Swartzlander, “A Spanning Tree Carry Lookahead Adder,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 931-939, Aug. 1992.

10.     N. H. E. Weste and D. Harris, CMOS VLSI Design, 4th edition, Pearson–Addison-Wesley, 2011.

11.     R. P. Brent and H. T. Kung, “A regular layout for parallel adders,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-31, pp. 260-264, 1982.

12.     D. Harris, “A Taxonomy of Parallel Prefix Networks,” in Proc. 37th Asilomar Conf. Signals Systems and Computers, pp. 2213–7, 2003.






Pooja Sabherwal

Paper Title:

Wavelet Transform As Method for ECG Signal  Analysis

Abstract: Theory of wavelet transform is a young branch of applied mathematics extensively developing from early 1980's. Recently, the wavelet transform is studied as applications to digital signal processing. Its application to biomedical signal processing has been found particularly useful in the study of the signals like ECG. In this review, the emerging role of the wavelet transform in the interrogation of the ECG is discussed in detail. In this paper an algorithm has been proposed to determine the r peaks and the number of betas in sampled signal. In the first step an attempt was made to generate ECG waveforms by developing a suitable MATLAB simulator and in the second step, using wavelet transform, the ECG signal was denoised by removing the corresponding wavelet coefficients at higher scales. Then R-Peak in QRS complexes were detected and the last step is to calculate the beat. For this Mat lab 7.4.0 environment has been, used and Db4 taken as mother wavelet. The maximum value of the approximation coefficients of level 4 is selected as the indicating parameter.

ECG, Wavelet transform, beat calculation, R-peak.


1.        Almagro1,JM Quero21Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
2.        ECG BEAT CLASSIFICATION USING DISCRETEWAVELET COEFFICIENTSA. Adib 1, M.A. HaqueBangladesh University of Engineering and Technology,Dhaka

3.        Gordan, Cornelia, Reiz Romulus,”ECG Signal processing using wavelets”,Vol.2, No.1, March 2011DOI : 10.5121/sipij.2011.2113 178.


5.        ECG analysis using wavelet transform: application to myocardial ischemia detection P. Ranjith a, P.C. Baby a, P. Joseph b,*29 January 2002.

6.        ECG SIGNALS PROCESSING USING WAVELETS Gordan Cornelia, Reiz Romulus. University of Oradea: Electronics Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering.

7.        Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Vol. 10 Issue 5 Ver. 1.0 July 2010 [16] QRS Wave Detection Using Multiresolution Analysis S.Karpagachelvi1 Dr.M.Arthanari, Prof. & Head2 M.Sivakumar

8.        DOI 10.1007/s13534-011-0016-9 A New Method of ECG Feature Detection Based on Combined Wavelet Transform for u-health Service  Min Soo Kim, Young Chang Cho, Suk-Tae Seo, Chang-Sik Son and Yoon-Nyun Kim.

9.        S.Z.Mahmoodabadi,A.Ahmadian,M.D.Abolhasani, “ECG feature Extraction using Daubechies Wavelets”, Proceedings of the fifth International conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing, pp.343-349, Sep.7-9,2005

10.     T. Murthy and G. D. Prasad, "Analysis of ECG from pole-zero models," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 39, pp. 741-751, July 1992.

11.     J. Vila, Y. Gang, 1. Presedo, M. Fernandez-Delgado, and M. Malik, "A new approach for TU complex characterization," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. Vol. 47. pp. 764-772, June 2000.

12.     John Darrington, "Towards real time QRS detection: A fast method using minimal pre-processing", Biomedical Signal Processing and   Control 1 (2006) 169-176.

13.     A. S. M. Koeleman, H. H. Ros, and T. J. van den Akker, "Beat-to beat interval measurement in the electrocardiogram," Med. Bioi. Eng. Comput., vol. 23, pp. 213-219, 1985.

14.     A. Algra and H. L. B. C. Zeelenberg, "An algorithm for computer measurement of QT intervals in the 24 hour ECG," in Computers in  Cardiology. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1987, pp. 117-119.

15.     T. K. Daskalov, l. A. Dotsinsky, and T. T. Christov, "Developments in ECG acquisition, preprocessing, parameter measurement and     recording," IEEE Eng. Med.
BioI. Mag., vol. 17, pp. 50-58, 1998.

16.     J. G. C. Kemmelings, A. C. Linnenbank, S. L. C. Muilwijk, A. Sippens- Groenewegen, A. Peper, and C. A. Grimbergen, "Automatic QRS onsetand offset detection for body surface QRS integral mapping of ventricular tachycardia," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 41, pp. 830-836, Sept. 1994.

17.     C. Li, C. Zheng, and C. Tai, "Detection of ECG characteristic points using wavelet transforms," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 42, pp.21-28, Jan. 1995.

18.     1. S. Sahambi, S. Tandon, and R. K. P. Bhatt, "Using wavelet transform for ECG characterization," IEEE Eng. Med. Bioi., vol. 16, no.pp.77- 83, 1997.

19.     Z. Dokur, T. Olmez, E. Yazgan, and O. Ersoy, "Detection of ECG wave forms by neural networks," Med. Eng. Phys., vol. 19, no. 8, pp.738-741, 1997.

20.     Mehmet Engin, "ECG beat classification using neuro-fuzzy network", Pattern Recognition Letters, 25 (2004) 1715-172.

21.     http://physionet.org    

22.     R.F.Von Borries,J.H.Pierluissi and H.Nazeran, “Wavelet Transform based ECG Base line drift Removal for body surface potential Mapping”, 27th annual conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology,China, IEEE ,pp.3891 – 3894, sep.1-4,2005

23.     S A Chouakri,F Bereksi-Reguig,S Ahmaidi,O Fokapu, “Wavelet Denoising of the Electrocardiogram Signal based on the Corrupted noise estimation”, computers in cardiology, IEEE vol.32,pp 1021-1024 , 2005

24.     C Saritha,V .Sukanya,Y.Narasingh Murty, “ECG Signal Analysis using Wavelet Transformation”,BulgJ Physics,pp-68-77,(35) 2008,Heron Press Limited

25.     S.A.Choukari, F.Bereksi-Reguing, S.Ahmaidi and O.Fokapu, “ECG signal smoothing based on combining wavelet denoising levels”. Asian Journal of Information Technology 5(6), pp 666 - 77, 2006

26.     M.Kania,M.Fereniec,R.Maniewski,“Wavelet Denoising for Multi lesd High Resolution ECG Signals”, Measurement Science Review,vol.7,Section 2, No.4,pp.30-33,2007

27.     Arman Sargolzaei,Karim Faez,Sama Sargolzaei, “ A New Robust wavelet Based Algorithm for Base line Wandering cancellation in ECG     Signals”, International conference on Signal and Image processing application”, IEEE, pp.33-38, 2009

28.     Fayyaz A Afsar and M.Arif, “Robust Electrocardiogram Beat classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform”,IEEE,978-1-4244-1748-3/08 pp.18671869, 2008

29.     Abed Al Raoof Bsoul,Soo-Yeon Ji,Kelvin Ward and Kayvan Najarian, “ Detection of P,QRS,and T components of ECG using Wavelet Transformation”, IEEE ,78-1-4244-3316-2/09,pp.1-5, 2009

30.     Antonio Espiritu-Santo-Rincon and Cuauhtemoc, “ECG Feature  Extraction via Waveform segmentation”, 7th International Conferenceon Electrical Engineering,Computing Science and Automatic  Control(CCE), IEEE pp.250-255, 2010






Neha Singh

Paper Title:

A Review of IS-IS Intrarouting Protocol

Abstract: Need of global networking is increasing day by day and is as a primary need. This paper state the issues related to Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocol, currently that supports routing of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and 6 (IPv6) and study both the strong and weak points of IS-IS routing protocol. This paper illustrate the working of IS-IS and issues (Routing, addressing, packet format, area and domain) related to IS-IS because it will be helpful for understanding the key things related to IS-IS. There are various intra routing protocols among which OSPF is very popular but IS-IS is more flexible than OSPF. This paper also gives some prospective ideas that why we can’t ignore IS-IS. This paper also describe the issues that are related to different resources utilization in IS-IS and in similar link state routing protocol such as OSPF and describe the proper difference why and in which situations IS-IS is better than OSPF. 

(IPv4), IS-IS, OSPF.


1.        Jeff Learman, “Integrated IS-IS Tutorial” SIF-AR-9907-082, 08/07/1999.
2.        Martin, Christian “Advantages of IS-IS over OSPF”.

3.        Roosevelt Ferreira “ISIS and OSPF: Network Design Comparisons and Considerations”

4.        Sampo Saaristo, Prof. Jarmo Harju  “Implementation of IS-IS Routing Protocol for IP versions 4 and 6” Tampere University of Technology Institute of Communications Engineering. 10/04/2002

5.        Shivkumar Kalyanaraman, “IS-IS vs. OSPF” Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

6.        Stefano Previdi and Paul Horrocks “Integrated IS-IS Design and Deployment Guide” version 1.0, 03/12/1998. 






S. U. Kulkarni, Kalpana Patil

Paper Title:

Energy Audit of an Industrial Unit- A Case Study

Abstract: In any industry, the three top operating expenses are often found to be on energy, labor and materials. If one were to find out the potential cost savings in each of the components, energy would invariably emerge at the top, and thus energy management function constitutes a strategic area for cost reduction. This paper discusses the common aspects of electrical energy management in small- and medium-sized industries. It contains the findings and the analysis of the results obtained from the electrical energy audit program employed in an industrial unit, Loknayak J.P.Narayan Shtekari Sahakari Sootgirni, Untawad Hol, Shahada.Dist.-Nandurbar. The electrical energy audit was carried out under three major heads: (i) lighting audit, (ii) power load audit (motors, meters, etc.), and (iii) harmonic analysis. Readings were taken under these heads and analyzed to find the scope of energy conservation opportunities in the selected test case industrial unit.

Energy audit, energy conservation opportunities, harmonic analysis, industrial unit.


1.        S. K. Aggarwal, M. Kumar, L. M. Saini, and A. Kumar, "Short-term load forecasting in deregulated electricity markets using fuzzy approach", Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 24-30, Jan-Jun2011.
2.        H. K. Wong, and C. K. Lee, "Application of energy audit in buildings and a case study", IEEE International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management 1993, HongKong,Dec1993.  

3.        P. Z. Yaacoh, and A. A. Mohd. Zin, "Electrical energy management in small and medium size industries", IEEE TENCON, Beijing, 1993. 

4.        A. Thumann, and W. J. Yonger, "Hand Book of Energy Audits", 7 th ed, Lilburn: Fairmont Press Inc.; 2007. 

5.        W. J. Lee, "Energy Management for Motors, Systems, and Electrical Equipment", Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, IEEE, 2001. 

6.        B. Huyck, and J. Cappelle, "Electrical energy management for low-voltage clients", International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, IEEE, 2007.

7.        X. W. Chen, "Energy Audit of Building: A Case Study of A Commercial Building in Shanghai", Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Asia-Pacific, 2010.

8.        A. Tyagi, "Hand Book of Energy Audit & Management" India: TERI Press; 2000. 

9.        "Catalouge Surelink Technologies" Shenzhen, China, 2008

10.     "IEEE recommended practice for electric power systems in commercial buildings", Recognized as an American National Standard (ANSI) IEEE Standard, pp. 241, 1990.  

11.     "Hindustan Electric Motors Catalouge", Arranged from Admin Off. Mumbai, India: Hindustan Electric MotorCompany;2008.p.1-2.   

12.     Havells Catalouge: Energy Efficient Three phase Induction Motors" arranged from Branch office. Chandigarh, India: Havells lafert Motors; 2009. p. 3-4. 

13.     Havells Catalouge: Energy Efficient Three phase Induction Motors" arranged from Branch office. Chandigarh: 2008. 

14.     C. T. Andrade, and S. T. Ricardo, "Three-phase induction motors- Energy Efficiency Standards-A Case Study", Pontes Electrical Engineering Department, Ceará Federal University, 2008. 

15.     "IEEE Recommended Practice for Energy Management in Industrial and Commercial Facilities", Recognized as an American National Standard (ANSI) IEEE Standard, pp. 739, 1995.





Avinash Pawar

Paper Title:

A Single-Feed Small Circularly Polarized Square MSA and Cavity Model for Square Patch Antenna

Abstract: Communication between humans was first by sound throughvoice. With the desire for slightly more distance communication came, devices such as drums, then, visual methods such as signal flags and smoke signals were used. These optical communication devices, of course, utilized the light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been only very recent in human history that the electromagnetic spectrum, outside the visible region, has been employed for communication, through the use of radio. One of humankind’s greatest natural resources is the electromagnetic spectrum and the antenna has been instrumental in harnessing this resource. The design of a single-feed small micro strip antenna with circular polarization (CP) radiation is described. This design is achieved by cutting slits in the square patch and, by adjusting the lengths of the slits; the micro strip antenna can perform CP radiation with a reduced patch size at a fixed operating frequency. This design also provides a wide CP bandwidth and relaxed fabrication tolerances. In cavity, it is shown that for a feed offset from one corner of the patch, the perturbation segment (∆S) is increased, thereby reducing the effect of manufacturing errors.

Single feed, micro strip antenna, single feed.


1.        J.R. James and P.S. Hall, Hand Book of Micro strips Antenna, Vol. 1, Peter Peregrines Ltd., 1989.
2.        C.A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory Analysis and Design”, 2nd ed; Willey New York, 1997.

3.        G. Kumar and K.P. Ray, “Broadband Micro strip Antennas”, Artech House, 2000.

4.        Kin-Lu Wong “Compact Broadband Micro strip Antennas”, John Willey & sons. Inc., New York, 2002.

5.        IE3D 11.1 Manual, Zealand Software Inc. Freemont, California, USA, 2002.

6.        Kin-Lu Wong and  Jian-Yi Wu, “Single-feed small circularly polarized square micro strip antenna”, IEEE Transaction, vol. 33, no. 22, 1997.

7.        Sin Keng Lee and S. F. Ooi, “Analysis of a circular-polarized nearly-square-patch antenna using a cavity model”, IEEE Transaction, vol. 46, no. 4, 2005






Valmik Kardile, Abhilasha Mishra

Paper Title:

Design & Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antenna for BW Enhancement Using Symmetrical Cuts

Abstract: The  narrow BW  of microstrip  antenna  is  one  of  the  important  features  that  restrict   its  wide  usages. This paper present omnidirectional microstrip patch antenna with wide bandwidth has been designed with centre frequency of 2GHz.  In  order  to  achieve  BW  enhancement  a rectangular  cut  structure  have  been  introduced  in  the  simple rectangular  patch antenna with ground optimization. It has been analyzed that Broad BW of 2.46 GHz at 2 GHz is achieved & omnidirectional pattern obtained, the results  were  obtained  using  the  simulation  software HFSS.

BW, rectangular microstrip patch antenna, ground variation, symmetrical cuts, return loss, radiation efficiency.


1.        Rampal Kushwaha, Prof. Kanchan Cecil  ‘’Design and analysis of gain for rectangular microstrip patch antenna using symmetrical cuts” International Journal of Advance Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER) Vol. 1, Issue 1, November 2011
2.        M. H. Diallo Yaccoub, Achraf Jaoujal, Mohammed Younssi, Ahmed El Moussaoui, and Noura Aknin “Rectangular Ring Microstrip Patch Antenna for Ultra-wide Band Applications” ISSR Journals 2013.

3.        Constantine A. Balanis - Antenna Theory: Analysis And Design, Third Edition.

4.        R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl, and A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Hand book, Norwood, MA,  Artech  House, 2001.

5.        Karim A Ahmed “Design & enhancement BW rectangular patch antenna using single trapezoidal slot technique”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 2012
6.        David Sanchez-Hernandez, Ian D. Robertson, “A Survey of Broadband Microstrip Patch Antenna”, Microwave Journal 1996.9






Sharad R. Mahajan, Prasad Vilas Bapat

Paper Title:

Specialized Noise Control Materials in the Automotive Industry

Abstract: The automotive industry is currently spending millions of dollars on NVH work to develop new materials and damping techniques. The new design methods are starting to consider NVH issues throughout the whole design process. This involves integrating extensive modeling, simulation, evaluation, and optimization techniques into the design process to insure both noise and vibration comfort.  New materials and techniques are also being developed so that the damping treatments are lighter, cheaper, and more effective. Some of the methods used to control noise, vibration, and harshness include the use of different carpeting treatments, the addition of rubber or asphalt material to car panels, gap sealant, and the injection of expandable foam into body panels.  The carpeting treatments include varying types of foam padding combined with different weights of rubber-backed carpet. The overall result of this technique is a mass-spring system that acts as a vibration absorber.  The rubber or asphalt materials are attached to various car panels to add damping and mass loading to reduce vibration levels and the rattling sounds from the panels.   Sealant is applied to close gaps in order to increase the transmission loss from the engine, wind, and road noise sources to the vehicle interior.  Expandable foam injected between panels, such as the dashboard and firewall, helps to add stiffness and vibration absorption. All of these current methods are effective at reducing sound and vibration levels in a vehicle at higher frequencies.  However, some of the treatments become almost ineffective at lower frequencies below 200 Hz.  The treatments also add a substantial amount of weight to the vehicle, thus affecting its fuel economy, as well as adding cost. Choosing the correct product for your application can be really easy if you properly identify the noise from the start. There are many contributors to automotive noise and the noise exists across a wide bandwidth of frequencies. To effectively reduce the noise floor within a vehicle, a combination of materials must be used. This technique will result in a greatly reduced installation time, a serious reduction in the amount of added weight to the vehicle and bunch of money saved in your wallet. When trying to reduce or eliminate various types of automotive noise, it is often necessary to utilize a variety of specialized noise control materials.

Noise, vibration, and harshness, Floor Barrier, vinyl barrier, Thermo-Acoustic under hood Liner, Gasketing Foam.


1.        2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition). American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc
2.        R-Value Table, Insulation Values For Selected Materials , http://coloradoenergy.org/procorner/stuff/r-values.htm

3.        automotive noise control   BY Zero Noise , Bend, Oregon USA, http://zeronoise.com

4.        Vibration damping properties of gradient polyurethane/vinyl ester resin interpenetrating polymer network ,BY C. L. Qin, D. Y. Zhao, X. D. Bai,  X. G. Zhang, B. Zhang, Z. Jin, H. J. Niu, http://www.researchgate.net/publication

5.        Noise Barrier-Noise Blockers , http://www.acousticalsurfaces.com/hvac






Edward Danso Ansong, Tony Takyi, Dominic Damoah, E. Afum Ampomah, Winfred Larkotey

Paper Title:

Internet Trolling in Ghana

Abstract: This paper presents the definition and history of internet trolling as espoused by different views and some varied ways it is practiced. A link between the Ghanaian cyber communication space and this online practice is verified and substantiatedwith an empirical study with regards to some social media platforms. The social implications are analyzed and some recommendations are made.

Keywords: Trolling; troller; social media.


1.        Herring, Susan C. 2002, Gender [SIC] violence. Recognizing and resisting abuse in online environments. Asian Women 14 (Summer): 187-212
2.        Free online dictionary of computing. 1998. Retrieved 10/8/13 (http:// wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/contents.html)

3.        Camp, L. Jean. 1996. We are geeks, and we are not guys: The Systers mailing list. In wired_women: Gender, and New Realities in cyberspace, eds. L. Chermy and E. R. Weise, pp. 114-125. Seattle: Seal Press.

4.        Andrew. 1996. The troller’s FAQ. Retrieved 10/8/13 (http://www.altairiv.demon.co.uk/afaq/posts/troll.faq.html)

5.        Brail, Stephanie. 1996. The price of admission: Harassment and free speech in the Wild, Wild West. In Wired_women: Gender and new realities in cyberspace, eds. L. Chermy and E. R. Weise, pp. 141-157. Seattle: Seal Press.

6.        Balka, Ellen. 1993. Women’s access to online discussions about feminism. Electronic journal of communication. Retrieved 9/8/13 (http://www.cios.org/www/ejc/v3n19].html)

7.        Ebben, Maureen m. 1994. Women on the net: An exploratory study of gender dynamics on the soc.women computer network. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

8.        Sutton, laurel. 1994. Using Usenet: gender, power, and silence in electronic discourse. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. eds. S. Gahl, A. Dolbey and C. Johnson, pp. 520. Bkley, CA: BLS.

9.        Reid, Elizabeth. 1994. Cultural formations in text-based virtual realities. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.

10.     Collins-Jarvis, Lori. 1997. Discriminatory messages and gendered power relations in online discussion groups. Paper presented at the 197 annual meeting of the National Communication Association. Chicago.

11.     Hall, Kiro. 1996. Cyber feminism. In computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social and cross-cultural perpectives, ed. S.C. Herring. pp. 147-170. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

12.     Dill, Karen E. and Jody C. Dill. 1998. Video game and violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and violent Behavior. A Review Journal 3. 407-428.

13.     Ferris, Pixy. 1997. What is CMC? An overview of scholarly definitions. CMC Magazine. January.

14.     Cho, Hee-Kyung, Mathias Trier and Eunhee Kim. 2005. The use of instant messaging in working relationship development: A Case study. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10.

15.     December, John. 1997. Notes on defining computer-mediated communication. CMC Magazine. January 1997.

16.     Herring, Susan C. and Carole G. Nix. 1997. Is “Serious Chat” an oxymoron? Pedagogical vs. social issues of internet relay chat. Paper presented at the American Association of Applied Linguistics Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida. 11 March.

17.     Merchant, Guy. 2001. Teenagers in cyberspace: An investigation of language use and language change in chartrooms. Journal of Research in Reading 24. 293-306.

18.     Scott, Derek. 1995. The effect of video games on feelings of aggression. The Journal of Psychology 129. 121-132.

19.     M. Schwartz. The Trolls among us, The Time Magazine August (2009).

20.     S. C. Herring, K. Job-Slender, R. Scheckler and S. Barab, Searching for safety online: managing ‘trolling’ in a feminist forum, The Information Society 18(5) (2002)371-383.

21.     Hardaker, C. (2013). “Uh….not to be nitpicky,,,,, but….the past tense of drag is dragged, not drug.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict. 58-88.

22.     Media Literacy Council, Secret emotions and tactics of online trolls exposed. (www.medialiteracycouncil.sg)






Mahmod A. Al-Zubaidy, Samaa K. Al-Saffar  

Paper Title:

Targets Signals Simulation in Radar System

Abstract: Radar system has many applications in the military and civilian fields; it is utilized for targets detection, obtaining the range, the direction, altitude and velocity (for moving target). These information can be extracted from target signal. Target effects on the transmitted signal, such effects are delayed and Doppler shift for moving targets. Generally, the development of radar systems and radar signal processing are always in progress and real radar systems are not always available for testing these developments. This work required computer simulators which are used to test the modification and development of these systems. In this paper, the two types of targets (moving and fixed) signals are simulated. In order to implement the target block, the transmitted signals and antenna location signals must be generated as inputs to target block. The target block is simulated using MATLAB Simulink, this block is designed by specifying the parameters of target block such as the velocity, range, azimuth of a target (direction), the direction of the target movement angle and wavelength. This block is tested for all different types of radars such as pulse radar, pulse compression radar, continuous wave radar and frequency modulation continuous wave (FM-CW) radar.

Radar system, target signal simulation, Doppler effect, radar signals.


1.        M. A. Al-Zubaidy, S. S. Al-Shamaa , and K.H. Sayidmarie,” A PC-Based Radar System Simulator,” IEEE 2005 International Symposium on Microwave, Antenna, Propagation and ECM Technologies for Wireless Communications (MAPE 2005), Beijing, China, 8-12 August 2005.
2.        A. Biran, and M. Breiner, “MATLAB 6 for Engineers," Prentice Hall, 3rd Edition, 2002.

3.        B. R. Mahafza, “Radar Systems Analysis and Design using MATLAB,” CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC, 2000.

4.        M. I. Skolnik, "Radar Handbook,” 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1990.

5.        D. K. Barton, and S. A. Leonov, "Radar Technology Encyclopedia", Artech House, 1998.

6.        M. I. Skolnik, "Introduction to radar systems,” 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1981. 






Vijayalakshmi G, Hema S, Geethapriya S

Paper Title:

Secure Data Aggregation & Query Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Enhanced Leach Protocol

Abstract: Data aggregation and storage has become very important issue in Sensor networks for future information retrieval. Storage nodes serve as an intermediate tier between sensors and a sink for storing data and processing queries in wireless sensor networks. The importance of storage nodes also makes them attractive to attackers. Data Storage is happens via the Forwarding nodes and Storage nodes. Storage nodes are introduced in this paper to store collected date from the sensors in their proximities, It reduce the energy cost and communication cost induced by network query. Aim of the project is to deploy the storage nodes and secure data transmission for cluster-based WSNs (CWSNs), where the clusters are formed dynamically and periodically. We propose two Secure and Efficient data Transmission (SET) protocols for CWSNs, called SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS, by using the Identity-Based digital Signature (IBS) scheme and the Identity-Based Online/Offline digital Signature (IBOOS) scheme, respectively. The cluster routing protocol LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is considered and improved. We propose a clustering routing protocol named Enhanced LEACH, which extend LEACH protocol by balancing the energy consumption in the network. The simulation results show that Enhanced LEACH outperforms LEACH in terms of network lifetime and power consumption minimization.



1.        S. Sharma and S. K. Jena, “A survey on secure hierarchical routing protocols in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. ICCCS, 2011.
2.        Heinzelman W. B., Chandrakasan A. P., Balakrishnan H., ”An applicationspecific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Trans on Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2002, pp. 660-670, doi: 10.1109/TWC.2002.804190.

3.        X. H. Wu, S. Wang, ”Performance comparison of LEACH and LEACHC protocols by NS2,” Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications to Business, Engineering and Science. Hong Kong, China, pp. 254-258, 2010

4.        P.T.V.Bhuvaneswari and V.Vaidehi ”Enhancement techniques incorporated in LEACH- a survey”Department of Electronics Engineering, Madras Institute Technology, Anna University Chennai, India, 2009.

5.        Wu Xinhua and Huang Li ”Research and Improvement of the LEACH Protocol to Reduce the Marginalization of Cluster Head”Journal of Wuhan University of Technology Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb. 2011, pp. 79-82, doi:10.3963/j.issn.1006-2823.2011.01.019 (in Chinese).

6.        Tao, L, Zhu, QX, Zhang, L. An Improvement for LEACH Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network.Proc.5th IEEE Conf. Indust.Electr. Appl. 2010;1:1811-4.

7.        S.K. Singh, M.P. Singh, and D.K. Singh, ”A survey of Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cluster-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Advanced Networking and Application (IJANA), Sept.-Oct. 2010, vol. 02, issue 02, pp. 570-580.

8.        WANG Jun,Zhang Xin, Xie Junyuan, Mi Zhengkun, ”A Distance-based Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks” Important national science technology specific projects 2011

9.        Thiemo Voigt, Hartmut Ritter, Jochen Schiller, Adam Dunkels, and Juan Alonso, ”. Solar-aware Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks”, In Proceedings of the NinthIEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, June 2004.

10.     Md. Junayed Islam, Md. Muhidul Islam, Md. Nazrul Islam ”A-sLEACH : An Advanced Solar Aware Leach Protocol for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks” Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Networking (ICN’07) 0-7695-2805-8/07 20.00 2007

11.     Fan Xiangning1,2 Song Yulin ”Improvement on LEACH Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network” International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications 2007.

12.     Rajashree.V.Biradar, Dr.S.R. Sawant, Dr. R. R. Mudholkar, Dr. V. C. Patil ”Multihop Routing In Self-Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks” IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 1, January 2011.






Hema S, Geethapriya S, Vijayalakshmi G

Paper Title:

Speed Comparison of 32x32 Multiplier Using Vedic Mathematic Techniques

Abstract: Digital multipliers are the core components of all the digital signal processors (DSPs) and the speed of the DSP is largely determined by the speed of its multipliers. So the Implementation of Vedic Mathematic techniques and their application to the complex multiplier provide substantial reduction in propagation delay, execution time in comparison with the existing methods. This paper proposed the design of high speed Vedic Multiplier using the techniques of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. The techniques described in this paper are Nikhilam Sutra, Urdhva Tiryakbhyam and Karatsuba-ofman and the performance analysis of these techniques is obtained. Modelsim tool is used for simulation and the results obtained are compared on the basis of time delay of multiplication.

Vedic mathematics, urdhva triyakbhyam sutra, karatsuba - ofman algorithm.


1.        Wallace, C.S., “A suggestion for a fast multiplier,” IEEE Trans. Elec. Comput., vol. EC-13, no. 1, pp. 14–17, Feb. 1964.
2.        Booth, A.D., “A signed binary multiplication technique,” Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 236– 240, 1951.

3.        Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharath, Krsna Tirathji, “Vedic Mathematics or Sixteen Simple Sutras From The Vedas”, Motilal Banarsidas, Varanasi(India),1986.

4.        A.P. Nicholas, K.R Williams, J. Pickles, “Application of Urdhava Sutra”, Spiritual Study Group, Roorkee (India),1984.

5.        Neil H.E Weste, David Harris, Ayan anerjee,”CMOS VLSI Design, A Circuits and Systems Perspective”,Third Edition, Published by Person Education, PP-327-328]

6.        Mrs. M. Ramalatha,  Prof. D. Sridharan, “VLSI Based High Speed Karatsuba  Multiplier for Cryptographic Applications Using Vedic Mathematics”, IJSCI, 2007

7.        Thapliyal H. and Srinivas M.B. “High Speed Efficient N x N Bit Parallel Hierarchical Overlay Multiplier Architecture Based on Ancient India Vedic Mathematics”, Transactions on Engineering, Computing  and Technology, 2004, Vol.2.

8.        “A Reduced-Bit Multiplication Algorithm For Digital Arithmetic” Harpreet Singh Dhilon And Abhijit Mitra, International Journal of Computational and Mathematical Sciences, Waset, Spring, 2008.

9.        “Lifting Scheme Discrete Wavelet Transform Using Vertical and Crosswise Multipliers” Anthony O’Brien and Richard Conway, ISSC, 2008, Galway, June 18-19.






Geethapriya S, Vijayalakshmi G, Hema S

Paper Title:

Power Consumption of Hybrid Topology Control in WSN

Abstract: A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) consists of spatially distributed sensor to monitor physical conditions and pass their data through network to the sink node. Topology control is an important technique used in WSN to achieve energy conservation and extend network lifetime without affecting important network performance such as connectivity and throughput. Topology control can be implemented in following ways: power adjustment technique, power mode technique, clustering technique. In each of these techniques, there are some limitations. To overcome the limitations of the existing schemes, new hybrid scheme is proposed by integrating the above mentioned schemes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid approach excels in the performance compared to the existing schemes in terms of energy savings.  

Cluster, cluster head, idle mode, sleep mode.


1.        Dilip kumar and R.B.Patel,” Multi-hop data communication algorithm for clustered wireless sensor networks”, International journal of distributed sensor networks,Feb 2011
2.        Handy M. J, Haase M., Timmermann D. “Low  Energy Adaptive  Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head Selection”,4th International workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network, pp.368-372,2004.

3.        Ossama Younis, Sonia Fahmy, “HEED: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Network”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol.3, No.4, pp.366-379,2004.

4.        Prasan Kumar Sahoo, Jang-Ping Sheu, Kun-Ying Hsieh, “Power Control Based Topology Construction for the Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks”, Elseiver journal on Computer Communications, Vol.30, pp.2274-2285,2007

5.        Azrina Abd Aziz, Y.Ahmet S, ekercioglu, Paul    Fitzpatrick, and Milosh Ivanovich, “ A Survey on Distributed Topology Control Techniques for Extending the Lifetime of Battery Powered Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE conference on Communications Surveys and Tutorials, pp.1-24,2012.

6.        C. Schurgers, V. Tsiatsis, and M. B. Srivastava. STEM- topologymanagement for energy efficient sensor networks. In 2002 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings-, volume 3, pages 3–1099, 2002.

7.        Gao De-Yun, Zhang Lin-Juvan, Wang Hwang-Cheng,”Energy saving with node sleep and power control mechanisms for wireless sensor networks”, Elseiver journal, Feb 2011.
8.        Martin Kubisch, Holger Karl, Adam Wolisz,  Distributed Algorithms for Transmission Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE conference on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol.1
9.        Raju Duttaa, Shishir Guptab, Mukul K. Da, “Power Consumption and Maximizing Network Lifetime during Communication of Sensor Node in WSN”, Elseiver
journal on Procedia Technology, pp.158-162,2012.

10.     Ameer Ahmed Abbasi, Mohamed Younis, “A  Survey  on clustering algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Elseiver journal on computer communications,Vol.30, pp-2846-2841,2007.

11.     Jaya Rao, Abraham, Fapojuwo O.”Battery Aware Distributed Clustering and Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”,International IEEEconference on Wireless Communications and Networking, pp.1538-1543,2012.

12.      Qi Zhang, Weiqing Qu, “An Energy Efficient   Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International IEEE conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering, pp.541-544,2012.





Suja K. J, Vidya Gopal T. V, Rama Komaragiri

Paper Title:

Optimized Design of Double Diaphragm Based MEMS Pressure Sensor for Wider Range and Better Sensitivity

Abstract: Microelectromechanical system based silicon pressure sensors have undergone a significant growth in the last few years. The sensitivity, maximum measurable pressure and linear range of pressure sensors highly depend upon the diaphragm structure.  In this work, single and double diaphragm based pressure sensors are designed and simulated and these can be used for high pressure measurements. A novel method of sensitivity enhancement by optimizing the   thickness of double    diaphragms is presented in this work. Also a study of the bulk micromachined silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor and   surface   micromachined stacked diaphragm pressure sensor are   presented, simulated and compared with respect to deflection and   sensitivity. Microelectromechanical system pressure sensors have been simulated with different diaphragm structures for obtaining wider operation range with better sensitivity. The performance of silicon and silicon on insulator pressure sensors at a given pressure are compared. The doping concentration of the piezoresistor is varied from 1015 cm-3 to 1020cm-3 and the sensitivity of pressure sensors are compared. Evaluating different structures of pressure sensors and optimizing doping concentrations as 1017cm-3, the double SOI sensor shows better pressure sensitivity.

MEMS, Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor, Surface micromachining, Bulk micro machining, Sensitivity.


1.        M. X. Zhouet. Al, “A Novel Capacitive Pressure Sensor Based on Sandwich Structures”, Journal of microelectro mechanical system, Vol. 14, pp.1272-1282,2005.
2.        Bernd Folkmer, Peter Steiner, Walter Lang, A pressure Sensor Based on a nitride membrane using single - crystalline piezoresistors, Sensors and Actuators A 54 (1996) 488–492.

3.        A. Berns, U. Buder, E. Obermeier, A. Wolter, A. Leder, Aero MEMS sensor array for high-resolution wall  Pressure measurements, Sensors and Actuators A 132 (2006) 104–111.

4.        Ingelin Clausen, Ola Sveen, Die separation and packaging of a Surface micromachined   piezoresistive pressure sensor, Sensors and Actuators A 133 (2007) 457–466.

5.        A.Wisitsoraat, V.Patthanasetakul, T. Lomas, A. Tuantranont, Low cost thin film based piezoresistive MEMS tactile sensor, Sensors and Actuators A 139  (2007) 17–22.

6.        Shyam  Aravamudhan,  Shekhar  Bhansali, Reinforced Piezoresistive pressure sensor for ocean depth measurements, Sensors and actuators A 142 (2008) 111–117.

7.        K.Sivakumar, N. Dasgupta, K.N. Bhat, Sensitivity enhancement of polysilicon  piezo-resistive pressure sensors with phosphorous diffused resistors, Journal of Physics :Conference Series 34 (2006) 216-221

8.        KY Madhavi, Sumithradevi K.A, M.Krishna, M.N. Vijayalaksshmi ,” Analysis of square and circular diaphragms for  a MEMS pressure sesnsor using Data Mining Tool” 2011 International conference on Communication  System and Network Technologies

9.        Suja K J, Bhanu Pratap Chaudhary, Rama Komaragiri,”Design and simualation of Pressure sesnsor for Ocean Depth Measurement” ,Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.313- 314 (2013) pp 666-670

10.     Narayanaswamy M ,. Joseph Daniel R Sumangala  K Antony Jeyasehar C.  (2011) Computer aided modelling and diaphragm design approach for high sensitivity
silicon-on-insulator pressure   44 : 1924–1936

11.     Timoshenko S and Woinosky-Krieger, “Theory of plates and shells “(1987)

12.     Shih-Chin Gong and Chengkuo Lee,” Analytical; solution of Sensitivity for pressure microsensors”, IEEE Sensors journal Vol  1 , No l 4,Dec2004

13.     N.D. Arora, J.R. Hauser, D.J. Roulston, “Electron and hole mobilities in silicon as a function of concentration and temperature"   IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol 29,1982

14.     Donald   A Neamen, “Semiconductor physics and devices,” Tata McGraw-Hill 2007.