Heavy Metal Contamination in Raw Honey, Soil and Flower Samples Obtained from Baringo and Keiyo Counties, Kenya
Maiyo, W. K1, Kituyi, J. L2, Mitei Y. J3, Kagwanja, S. M.4
1Maiyo, W. K, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125 Eldoret, Kenya.
2Kituyi, J. L, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125 Eldoret, Kenya.
3Mitei Y. J, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Eldoret, P.O Box 1125 Eldoret, Kenya.
4Kagwanja, S. M., Department of Chemistry, Chuka University, P.O. Box 109, Chuka, Kenya.
Manuscript received on May 15, 2014. | Revised Manuscript received on May 18, 2014. | Manuscript published on May 25, 2014. | PP:5-9 | Volume-2 Issue-7, May 2014. | Retrieval Number: F0713042614/2014©BEIESP
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© The Authors. Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: – Heavy metals in honey are of interest currently not only for quality control, but also as an environmental bioindicator. The concentrations of trace heavy metals; Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe and Cd in 14 honey, soil and flower samples collected from selected sites in Keiyo and Baringo counties, have been determined by use of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The concentrations of trace heavy metals in mg/kg in raw honey samples were in the range: Pb (0.063-0.491); Zn (0.012- 0.259); Fe (0.073-1.295); Cu (0.032-0.123); Cd (0.044-0.224) and Cr (0.004-0.152) while in soil samples were: Pb (0.370-0.813); Zn (0.123-1.220); Fe (0.433-12.276); Cu (0.044-0.237); Cd (0.145- 0.230) and Cr (0.013-0.105) and in flower samples were: Pb (0.104-0.770); Zn (0.097-0.634); Fe (0.088-8.133); Cu (0.078- 0.301); Cd (0.167-0.241) and Cr (0.004-0.013). The levels of most heavy metals were generally higher in soil samples than in raw honey and flower samples. The results obtained showed that most heavy metal contents in raw honey were, however, below the WHO, FAO and KEBS recommended permissible limits for honey as a foodstuff. Detected levels of Cd, Pb and Cr (Keiyo) in raw honey were above these limits. Investigation on the possibility of correlation between the levels of selected heavy metal contents in honey and those in soil and flowers for most elements showed that there was no significant correlation
Keywords: Contamination, Correlation, Trace Heavy Metals, Raw Honey.